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Purchased from the 

funds of 

The Lewis H. Beck Foundation 

MAY 2 6 194? 




" Warriors ! — and where are warriors found, 
If not on martial Dixie's ground?" 

Kentucky Cavaliers 
in Dixie 

The Reminiscences of a Confederate Cavalryman. 



Much of the History of General Humphrey Marshall and his "Army " and of " Morgan and his Men;" Colonel 
Henry L. Giltner and his Cavalry Brigade; A History of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry Regiment; Recollec- 
tions of Generals John C. Breckinridge, Wm. Preston, " Cerro Gordo" Williams, S. B. Buckner, 
Geo. B. Cosby, Geo. B. Crittenden and others ; General Longstreet in Tennessee, and General 
Jubal A. Early ia the Shenandoah Valley ; Pen Portraits of Officers and Men ; Life in 
Tent and Field ; Battles, Cavalry Raids, Songs, Incidents and Anecdotes ; 
Characteristics of the Confederate Soldier ; Interesting Miscellany, etc. 




I8 95 . 



To the Confederate Soldier, 

this BOOK 

is Affectionately Inscribed 

by the Author. 

" The nien who held the heights at Gettysburg will live in history ; 
yes — and the men who charged up the heights will live in history, too." 

—Abraham Lincoln. 


THE following pages represent the labor of years and 
the affection of a lifetime. 

Old soldiers, Confederate and Federal — they are all old — 
are accustomed to salute the one the other, and exclaim : 
" We are passing away ! " When all shall have answered the 
last roll call, no sculptured marble may perpetuate the mem- 
ory of their soldierly virtues, but their names shall be en- 
shrined in the remembrance of their countrymen. 

The stars and bars are entwined within the folds of the 
star-spangled banner, and the bravest in time of war show 
themselves the most orderly and generous when the doves 
are nesting within the cannon's mouth. 

I have written the following pages largely from memory, 
and, although what I have written is authentic history, I do 
not pretend to claim that this book contains a complete history 
of any company, regiment, brigade or division of the Con- 
federate army. 

The personages with whom I came in contact were so 
many, the movements of troops so numerous and complex, 
that it were impossible for me to remember all of them ; and 
besides, no one soldier or officer of any command ever saw 
everything, or had the same experience. 

Being connected with the adjutant-general's office, and 
performing staff duty, I was brought in close contact with 
the rank and file of regiments, brigades and divisions, and 
was enabled to see much of prominent officers and to acquire 
information in regard to plans of campaigns, the movements 
of troops and to witness innumerable interesting incidents ; 
yet I was so young, only eighteen, that I naturally failed to 
observe the panorama of war as closely and intelligently as I 
probably would have done had I been past the age of 

Many personages and incidents, however, impressed them- 
selves indelibly upon my youthful mind, and I have been 



constrained to write these reminiscences that the virtues and 
valorous deeds of my comrades may not be lost in oblivion. 
I am conscious, however, that my pen is lamentably deficient 
in artistic and descriptive ability to do justice to the Con- 
federate chevalier. 

I have written this book also with the hope that to the 
Confederate soldier who is not yet "sleeping in the valley" 
may be recalled memories of the bivouac, his marches, his 
battles and the innumerable scenes and incidents peculiar 
to the days when he was " a soldier in gray." 

It will not be long until " the last of the Confederates " 
shall have passed to the "eternal camping ground," to " rest 
under the shade of the trees." Even now, but few are left 
to bury the dead; therefore, to the sons and daughters of 
Confederate veterans should be left something more tangible 
than tradition to remind them of the gallant deeds per- 
formed by their fathers who followed the stars and bars and 
starry cross " away down South in Dixie." 

A native of Louisville, I was living in Hunters Bottom, on 
the banks of L,a Belle Riviere, near Carrollton, Ky., when I 
mounted a charger and rode to Dixieland to serve her cause 
" for three years, or during the war." This was early in Sep- 
tember, 1862, and, looking adown the long vista of years in- 
tervening between the present and the far-away past, I see 
the indistinct outlines of many pictures I fain would hang on 
the " walls of memory's hall." Numbers of them, however, 
are hanging there in bold relief, every feature clearly delin- 
eated, the coloring fresh, every tint discernible. I have 
striven to freshen up the faded pictures by brushing away 
the accumulated dust and cobwebs of Time, and, in numer- 
ous instances, have succeeded only by the aid and counsel of 
a few intelligent comrades, who, believing in my work, have 
given an impetus to my energies by their assistance and en- 

To Captain Edward O. Guerrant, Adjutant-General, the 
comrade whom I loved, I am indebted, more than to any other 
person, for material aid in the preparation of this book. 

The Hon. Charles J. Bower, Kansas City, Mo. ; General 
Basil W Duke, Captain John J. McAfee, Captain Bart W 


Jenkins, Captain R. O. Gathright and Comrade Neville Bul- 
litt, of Louisville, Ky. ; Captain J. J. Schoolfield, of Iuka, 111. ; 
H. P Willis, of Bracken County, Ky. ; Col. A. S. Berry, 
Member of Congress Sixth Kentucky District ; D. Brainard 
Bayless, of Cincinnati, Ohio, and others have been prompt 
and generous in giving me valuable aid, timely suggestions 
and encouragement. I herewith beg them to accept my 
thanks and acknowledgments for the same. 

Geo. Dallas Mosgrove. 

Carrollton, Ky., December, 1S94. 



In which the Author Becomes a Confederate Cavalryman— The March 
from the Ohio River to Owenton — Organization — From Owenton 
to Camp Buckner — General Bragg's Campaign— Battle of Perry- 
ville — Retreat from Kentucky. 

Organization of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry — The Muster Rolls. 

General Humphrey Marshall — General William Preston. 

Colonel Henry L. Giltner. 

Adjutant-General Edward O. Guerrant — Captain Peyton Miller. 


Lieutenant-Colonel Moses Tandy Pryor — Mrs. Barbara A. Pryor — 
Officers in Prison on Johnson's Island. 

Major Nathan Parker. 

The Buttermilk Ranger. 


East Tennessee Campaign-^Events of 1863 — Telford's — Limestone — 
Capture of the One Hundreth Ohio Infantry Regiment. 

East Tennessee Campaign, continued — Battle of Blue Springs. 

East Tennessee Campaign, continued — Battle of Henderson's Mill. 

East Tennessee Campaign, continued — Battle of Rheatown — Pugh's 
Hill — Blountville — Zollicoffer — Abingdon — Review — Reorgani- 




General Ransom— General William E. Jones — General John S. Will- 
iams — General George B. Crittenden. 

East Tennessee Campaign, continued — Battle of Big Creek. 

A Literary Symposium. 


Stampeding Wolford's Cavalry. 


General Longstreet in Tennessee — The Siege of Knoxville — Assault 
upon Fort Sanders — Minor Infantry and Cavalry Engagements. 

Schoolfield's Battery. 

Captain Bart W. Jenkins and His Troopers. 


Dr. Sam S. Scott — Adjutant reeman — Sergeant-Major Harrison — 
Captain Geo. T. Atkins — Captain Geo. T. Campbell — Captain War- 
ren Montfort — Lieutenant-Colonel Clarence J. Prentice — Dr. Geo. 
S. Whipple. 


Lieutenant Archie W. Smith — Recruiting in Kentucky — General 
Order No. 38 — Execution of Corbin and McGraw — Lieutenant- 
Colonel George M. Jessee — General S. B. Buckner. 

General John H. Morgan — His Escape from the Ohio Penitentiary. 

General Morgan Defeats Averill — Major Parker Killed. 


Morgan's Last Ride into Kentucky — Preparations for the Trip — 
Organization— The March to Mt. Sterling— The First Battle There. 

The Second Battle at Mt. Sterling. 



Winchester — Lexington — Fort Clay — Buggies and Carriages for 
Ambulances — Obtaining Horses — A Generous and Hospitable 
Bluegrass Family. 


Georgetown — Demonstration Toward Frankfort — The March to 


The First Battle at Cynthiana — The Federal Commander Killed— 
Defeat and Capture of the Enemy — The Burning of the Town. 


The Second Battle at Cynthiana— A Desperate Combat— The Capture 
of General Hobson — The Fatal Encampment on the Wrong Side 
of Licking River. 


The Third Battle at Cynthiana— The Confederates Defeated and Stam- 
peded — Many Captured — Death in the Licking River — Narrow 
Escape of General Morgan and a Remnant of His Command — 
The Confederate Force, Cut in Twain, Retreats by two Routes — 
The Prisoners Paroled — The Bummer — Results of the Raid. 

General Morgan's March to Greenville, Tenn. 

Morgan Betrayed — The Woman — General Gillem's March. 


General Morgan Surprised — Confusion in the Camps — The General 
Missing— Uncertainty Regarding His Fate — Retreat on the Jones- 
boro Road — Captain McAfee, Under a Flag of Truce, Finds the 
General's Dead Body in Greenville. 


The Death of Morgan — The Garden Scene — Murder in the Vineyard 
— Arrival of General Basil W Duke and Colonel Dick Morgan — 
Burial of the Dead Chieftain at Abingdon — Some Reflections. 



The Battle of Saltville. 


The Battle of Saltville, continued— Death of Colonel Trimble— Defeat 
of the Federals. 


The Battle of Saltville, continued — Captain Jenkins in the Federal 
Rear — Arrival of Generals Breckinridge and Echols— Duke's, 
Cosby's and Vaughn's Brigades — Killing the Negroes. 


The Battle of Saltville, continued — The Retreat and Pursuit — General 
Basil W. Duke — Colonel Charles Hanson — Federal Depredations 
— Escape of the Federals. 


In the Shenandoah Valley — General Cosby — Natural Bridge — Lex- 
ington — Washington College — Virginia Military Institute — Stone- 
wall Jackson's Grave — General Early — General Lomax — Captain 
McAfee — Rosser's Men. 


In the Shenandoah Valley, continued — Luray Valley — General Imbo- 
den — Lieutenant Crit Ireland — "Moonshine Stills" — Columbia 
Bridge — Front Royal — Desolation and Graves. 


In the Shenandoah Valley, continued — General Early Makes a Recon- 
noissance in Force — The Infantry Exchanges Pleasantries with 
the Cavalry — Lost on a Bleak Plateau — A Fragrant Breath and 
Two Canteens — A Weird Scene. 


Farewell to the Valley — General Early's Opinion of the Cavalry — 
Good News from Rosser- — New Clothing — Famous Virginia 
Springs — The Return March — Grave of Captain Cleburne— -Mrs. 
John B. Floyd. 


The '' Boys " Entertain Their Comrades with Stories of Valley Expe- 
rience — Stoneman on a Raid — Burbridge After More Salt — Gen- 
eral Duke is Captured, but Escapes — General Duke Defeated at 
Kingsport, and Colonel Dick Morgan Captured — Captain Bart Jen- 
kins Captured at Abingdon, but Kills Two Soldiers and Escapes'.. 



The Battle of Marion — Witcher and His Nighthawks — The Ken- 
tuckians win Choice of Position — Incidents. 


The Battle of Marion, continued — No Sunday in the Army — A Des- 
perate Combat— Stoneman Repulsed — Duke and Witcher Demor- 
alize the ''Smoked Yankees." 


The Battle of Marion, continued — Enigmatical Strategetics — A Wide 
Open Door for General Stoneman to Enter Saltville. 

The Captains of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry. 

Some of the " Boys." 


The Last Days — The Homeward March — The Surrender to General 
Hobson at Mt. Sterling. 

Kentucky Cavaliers in Dixie. 


In which the Author becomes a Confederate Cavalryman— 
The march from the Ohio river to Owenton — Organiza- 
tion — From Owenton to Camp Buckner — General Bragg's 
Campaign— Battle of Perryville — Retreat from Ken- 

" And there was tumult in the air, 

The fife's shrill note, the drum's loud beat ; 
And through the wide land everywhere, 
The answering tread of hurrying feet." 

SIMULTANEOUSLY, September 5, 1862, General Lee 
invaded Maryland and General Bragg marched into 
Kentucky. There were exciting times in the Northland and 
in the Southland, and more especially in the border States. 
In Kentucky thousands of young men were eager to enlist 
under the starry cross of Dixie. The coming of Bragg 
opened the way In advance of his army recruiting officers 
appeared here and there throughout the State, none of whom 
were more daring and successful than the noted trio, Giltner, 
Pryor and Parker, who came into Kentucky with the inten- 
tion of recruiting a regiment. They operated in the border 
counties, along the Ohio River from Louisville to Cincinnati, 
and in counties adjoining them not lying immediately on the 
river. The result of the enterprise was the organization 
known as the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry Regiment. The 
recruits remained quietly at their homes until there was a 
marshaling of clans for purposes of organization. They 
were compelled to be very discreet in their preliminary 
movements, as there was ever present the menacing danger 
of being captured by the Federals upon information given 
by unfriendly citizens. 

Having secretly provided themselves with arms, horses 



and other equipments, they quietly assembled at the desig- 
nated rendezvous, and, without noteworthy adventure, con- 
centrated at Owenton, Owen County, Ky., at which place four 
companies were organized, H. L. Giltner, M. T. Pryor, W B. 
Ray and J. T. Alexander being selected as captains. Sub- 
sequently Captain John G- Scott, Captain R. O. Gathright 
and Captain D. L,. Revill reported with parts of companies, 
which were afterward filled, and Captain Thomas E- Moore 
brought in another company. From Owenton the march 
was resumed, the column being constantly augmented by 
additional recruits. Passing through Stamping Ground, and 
on to Paris, in Bourbon County, the " little army " went into 
camp for a day or two at the fair grounds, and then moved 
into a more permanent camp near by, in a beautiful wood- 
land carpeted with luxuriant bluegrass, owned by the 
wealthy and hospitable Buckner family, in honor of whom 
the encampment was called " Camp Buckner." Being lib- 
erally supplied by the generous and wealthy citizens with 
well-cooked provisions, and visited by the fair ladies of that 
most beautiful and hospitable of all lands, and in turn the 
gay soldier boys being received as welcome guests in the ele- 
gant manors, the halcyon days at Camp Buckner savored 
little of the rough, hard life afterward experienced. The 
march from the Ohio River to Camp Buckner had been a con- 
tinuous ovation. All along the route men cheered and fair 
women smiled and waved handkerchiefs. An exhilarating 
scene was witnessed at the Oxford Female Academy, where 
the young girls rushed out upon the green, wildly cheering 
and waving encouragement. The most notable demonstra- 
tions, however, were at Georgetown and Paris, where the 
ladies thronged the sidewalks, doorways and windows, wav- 
ing handkerchiefs and small Confederate flags. This so en- 
thused the boys that, after giving the regulation " Confed- 
erate yell," they began singing: 

" Cheer, boys, cheer, we'll inarch away to battle ; 
Cheer, boys, cheer, for our sweethearts and our wives." 

Pleasant memories cluster about Camp Buckner and the 
elysian fields and smiling skies of Bourbon — the generous 


families of Buckner, Clay, Thomas and Bedford. But the 
bugle calls, and all is changed. We mount our horses and 
forthwith confront the rough, hard life of a Confederate cav- 
alryman. There are to be no more Camp Buckners. From 
new on it is marching, marching, marching, day and night, 
along dusty turnpikes, suffering greatly for want of water, 
and nearly always hungry and sleepy. 

Until the close of General Bragg's campaign we were con- 
stantly marching — moving to and fro on the chess-board of 

Just before marching into Kentucky General Bragg had 
been at Chattanooga, on the left flank of Buell's Federal 
army. Early in August, with Morgan's cavalry in advance, 
the Confederate army made a rapid movement up the 
Sequatchie Valley into Kentucky Buell immediately started 
for Louisville, and then there was an exciting race between 
the two armies. To make it more interesting, General E- 
Kirby Smith, of Manassas fame, leaving a considerable force 
to watch the wily Federal general, George W Morgan, at 
Cumberland Gap, with twelve thousand infantry and about a 
thousand of Scott's celebrated cavalry, entered Kentucky 
from Virginia and struck the army of General Wm. Nelson 
at Richmond, and, in a pitched battle, defeated the Federals, 
the defeat becoming a rout. Smith "swiftly marched upon 
Lexington, effecting a junction with General John H. Mor- 
gan, and advanced a division of his army to the vicinity of 
Covington, threatening Cincinnati. Within a few days Bragg 
also arrived at Lexington, thence moving to Frankfort, tak- 
ing possession of that city and the country south and west 
of it. At Frankfort, October 4th, in the presence of thirty 
thousand Confederate soldiers and a vast assemblage of citi- 
zens, Richard Hawes was inaugurated Governor of Kentucky 
The new Governor had scarcely concluded his inaugural 
address when the advanced cavalry of Buell's army charged 
up to the Kentucky river bridge, and "Governor" Hawes 
retired with General Bragg to Lexington. 

Buell, having reached Louisville and reorganized his army, 
marched upon Frankfort with one column, sending another 


down the south bank of Kentucky River, on Bragg's left 
flank, threatening his rear. 

Strangely, inexplicably, General Bragg divided his army, 
and with the smaller part fought the larger part of Buell's 
divided force. 

The battle of Perryville, fought October 8th, was most des- 
perate and bloody — the bloodiest ever fought on Kentucky 
soil. Neither general was aware of the real situation when 
the battle began. General Bragg thought he was attacking 
the smaller part of Buell's army, while Buell believed he was 
confronted by the greater part of the Confederate force. 
Just the reverse was true. 

The battle was brief. It began at 2:30 o'clock and 
closed at 6 p. m. Of twenty-five thousand men, the Fed- 
erals lost, in killed and wounded, probably four thousand. 
The Confederates lost, in killed and wounded, about three 
thousand of the fifteen thousand men they had in the fight. 

By nightfall, General Bragg realized that nearly the whole 
of General Buell's army was confronting him, and concluded 
to fall back toward Harrodsburg to meet General Kirby 
Smith, who was marching toward him from Frankfort and 
Lexington. Bragg then resolved to retreat from the State, 
overruling the counsel of Generals Humphrey Marshall and 
Smith, who declared that such a movement was not neces- 

The Confederate Government was very much dissatisfied 
with Rragg's management of the Kentucky campaign, and 
placed him, temporarily, under arrest. In like manner, the 
Federals severely criticised General Buell. The Fourth Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, having been assigned to General Marshall's 
command, assisted in covering the retreat, marching in rear 
of the immense wagon train — said to be about thirty miles 

Upon reaching Lancaster, due east from the Perryville 
battlefield, General Marshall's column separated from Bragg's, 
leaving the State by way of Pound Gap, while General Bragg 
retreated into Tennessee by way of Cumberland Gap and 
other passes through the mountains. 



Organization of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry— The Muster 


" There many a 3'outhful knight, full keen 
To gain his spurs, in arms was seen." 

THE Fourth Kentucky Cavalry Regiment, nearly nine 
hundred strong, was fully organized at Salyersville, 
Ky., on the 5th day of October, 1862. Henry L. Giltner 
was made Colonel ; M. T. Pryor, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Nathan 
Parker, Major ; S. S. Scott, Surgeon ; Geo. T Campbell, 
Captain-Commissary ; Geo. T. Atkins, Captain-Quarter- 
master ; Terah M. Freeman, Adjutant, and R. Frank Harri- 
son, Sergeant-Major. Charles Duncan, of Covington, Ky., 
had been adjutant, temporarily, and Captain Campbell was 
eventually succeeded in the commissary department by 
Captain Jacob Yeager. 

The final organization of companies was as follows : Com- 
pany A, Captain Wm. B. Ray ; Company B, Captain John G. 
Scott; Company C, Captain J. T Alexander; Company D, 
Captain Thomas E. Moore ; Company E, Captain Sam Dun- 
can; Company F, Captain Thomas M. Barrett; Company G, 
Captain Loss Revill, succeeded by Captain James T Willis ; 
Company I, Captain John J Marshall ; Company K, Captain 
Shuck Whittaker. When Major Parker was killed, Captain 
Ray became Major, and Lieutenant Ben Duncan became Cap- 
tain of Company A. When Captain Marshall was killed, 
Lieutenant H. S. Chilton succeeded to the captaincy of Com- 
pany I, and when Captain Sam Duncan was captured at 
Rheatown, Tenn., Lieutenant H. H. Adcock succeeded to the 
command of Company E, retaining it until the close of the 

The companies were made up of men from the counties of 
Harrison, Bourbon, Pendleton, Kenton, Campbell, Boone, 
Grant, Gallatin, Owen, Henry, Carroll, Trimble and 01dham r ! 
Some were from Louisville, others from different parts of the 
State, and not a few from other States. 


The regiment was first brigaded under General Marshall ; 
afterward under Generals Wm. Preston, John S. Williams 
and others ; finally, under Colonel H. L, Giltner. The bri- 
gade was a part of General John H. Morgan's division from 
the time of that chieftain's escape from the Ohio prison until 
he was killed. It then became an independent brigade, con- 
tinuing as such until the close of the war. 

The muster rolls of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry are 
herewith appended : 


H. L. Giltner, Colonel. 

Moses T. Pryor, Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Nathan Parker, Major. 

Sam S. Scott, Surgeon. 

George S. Whipple, Assistant Surgeon. 

H. Gamble, Assistant Surgeon. 

L. L. Gregory, Assistant Surgeon. 

G. T. Campbell, Commissary. 

Clint W Kelly, Commissary Sergeant: 

Geo. T. Atkins, Quartermaster. 

James Crews, Assistant Quartermaster. 

Terah M. Freeman, Adjutant. 

R. Frank Harrison, Sergeant-Major. 

James O. Bersot, Quartermaster-Sergeant. 

Jacob Yeager, Commissary Sergeant. 


Wm. D. Ray, Captain. Nathan Barnes, Fourth Sergeant. 

Ben F. Duncan, First Lieutenant. Geo. W Miller, Orderly Sergeant. 

John H. Thomas, Second Lieut. Jacob Yeager, Quartermaster. 

John R. Sanders, Second Lieut. John Law, First Corporal. 

Fred Hutchison, First Sergeant. Columbus Shephard, Second Cor- 
L. G. Peak, Orderly Sergeant. poral. 

Silas N. Peak, Second Sergeant. John F Hall, Second Corporal. 

Ben F. Gray, Second Sergeant. John R. Skidmore, Third Corporal. 

Jesse F. Fallis, Third Sergeant. Robt. W Gatewood, Fourth Cor- 
Geo. W. Abbott, Fourth Sergeant. poral. 

Abbott, Wm. A. Burrows, Wm. F., transferred to 
Abbott, W H. Colonel Hawkins. 
Alexander, James. Burrows, A. W. 
Arington, Lafe W., transferred to Belle, Lafe, transferred to Corn- 
Company H. pany H. 



Burton, W. B., transferred to Com- 
pany H. 

Burrows, Thos. D. 

Colbert, John L,., detailed as 
butcher and commissary. 

Colbert, Russell, detailed as 
butcher and commissary. 

Colbert, W. J., transferred to Com- 
pany H. 

Coleman, Wm. Oscar. 

Crafton, Jack. 

Crafton, Elijah. 

Crafton, Babbitt, died. 

Canady, Moses, died March 3, 1863. 

Callis, Hampton, transferred to 
Company H. 

Callis, Thos. A., transferred to 
Company H. 

Callis, Camden B., transferred to 
Company H. 

Callis, E. B., transferred to Com- 
pany H. 

Duggins, Kendrick, transferred to 
Colonel Hawkins. 

Davis, Flem, killed. 

Ewing, Geo. 

Ewing, Augustus M. 

Edrington, Alex., died. 

Edwards, Geo. W. 

Ewing, G. D. 

Fisher, J. E-, died. 

Fallis, Flournoy C. 

Farley, Wm., died. 

Frost, Amos. 

Foree, John T. 

Ferguson, Sid. 

Foree, Thos., transferred to Com- 
pany H. 

Faulconer, Lev., transferred to 
Company H. 

Foree, Geo., transferred to Com- 
pany H. 

Tague, John T. 

Ginn, James G. 

Greenwood, Wm. L,. 

Gatewood, W. R. 

Goode, Wm. R. 

Greenwood, Wm. H., transferred 
to Colonel Hawkins. 

Greenwood, John W., transferred 
to Colonel Hawkins. 

Gideon, John R. 

Gideon, James W. 

Glass, F. M., transferred to Com- 
pany H. 

Greenwood, W. 

Glass, Conway, transferred to 
Company H. 

Gosmam, Sam'l. 

Hunter, Henry, transferred to 
Colonel Hawkins. 

Hood, Robt. 

Hall, Ely. 

Humphrey, Robt. E. 

Hoskins, Armistead, died. 

Hunt, J. C. 

Hedges, R. 

Harmon, 0. P., transferred to Com- 
pany H. 

Hoskins, R. A., transferred to 
Company H. 

Harmon, J. W., transferred to 
Company H. 

Hoskins, A. G. 

Jones, J. D. 

Johnson, Joe, killed at Telford's 
Depot, Tenn., Sept. 9, 1863. 

Johnson, Barney. 

Jackson, Sam P. 

Kirk, Wm. 

Kent, David. 

Lent, Geo., transferred to Com- 
pany H. 

Murphy, Philip. 

McClelland, Wm. 

Mitchell, Allen. 

Maddox, Alonzo W. 

McCarty, James. 

Mitchell, W. C, transferred to 
Company H. 


Mayfield, C. G. 

Martin, James, transferred to Com- 
pany H. 

McGlochlen, Henry, transferred 
to Company H. 

Ogden, Wm. 

Owen, James G-, promoted to Ord- 
nance Sergeant. 

Owens, James. 

Perkinson, John D. 

Pendleton, John R. 

Peak, Geo. W 

Peddicord, John. 

Pryor, Wm. M. 

Penn, John W 

Quinley, Allen. 

Robinson, John L. 

Romans, Sam L. 

Rowlett, John \V. 

Riddle, Win., transferred to Com- 
pany H. 

Richmond, Andrew, transferred to 
Company H. 

Richmond, J. W., transferred to 
Company H. 

Stafford, D. F., died. 

Stafford, H. W. 

Smith, Robt. 

Smith, Albert R., killed at Lime- 
stone, Tenn., Sept. 1S63. 

Sanders, Gosley. 

Shoemaker, John. 

Staples, Marion, transferred to 

Company H. 
Staples, Sam'l A., transferred to 

Company H. 
Smith, Robt. F 
Sanders, Jas. G. 
Trulove, H. H. 
Trulove, W T. 
Trulove, H. W 
Trout, Dan'l B. 
Tandy, John A. 
Thompson, W D., died. 
Tingle, Sam. 
Tingle, Wm. 
Turngate, J. X., transferred to 

Company H. 
Turngate, D. W., transferred to 

Company H. 
Tandy, John F 
Tandy, Andrew J. 
Vawter, Wm. H. 
Vawter, Alphiel. 
Welch, David. 
Wooley, Thos. 
Wright, James. 
Welch, Geo. W., transferred to 

Company H. 


John G. Scott, Captain. 

Marion Corbin, First Lieutenant, 
shot by Burnside, death order, 
on Johnson s Island. 

Robt. F. Alexander, First Lieu- 

Pierce Whittaker, Second Lieu- 

Parker Dean, Second Lieutenant, 
killed at Cynthiana, Ky. 

Alex. C. Ross, First Sergeant, 
killed at Mt. Sterling, Ky. 

Lewis Alexander, Second Ser- 

Price N. Demint, Third Sergeant. 

John D. Alexander, Fourth Ser- 

Robert L. Bond, Fourth Sergeant. 

Sam'l Ryan, Fifth Sergeant. 

Robt. L. Sanders, First Corporal. 

Daniel H. Morgan, Second Cor- 

John E. Eglestou, Third Corporal. 

James O. Bersot, Fourth Corporal. 

Wood G Stansifer, Fourth Cor- 

Dike Arnold, Bugler, died at Jones- 
ville, Va., February 12, 1S63. 

Joel K. Corbin, Blacksmith. 

John W West, Farrier. 



Alexander, Lewis. 

Alexander, Richard M. 

Allcorn, Benj., transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Ayers, Jas. T., transferred to Fifth 

Eoothe, James. 

Baxter, James. 

Baker, Wm. 

Bowlin, Robt. O. 

Bowlin, John, died at Gladeville, 

Bournand, Henry. 

Brown, Wm. M. 

Boyd, Wm. 

Costigan, Albert. 

Cox, Richard L. 

Craig, Edward T. 

Demint, Wm., transferred from 
Company F. 

Diarmit, Richard. 

Dinguid, James E. 

Friend, R. S., captured in Ken- 

Franklin, Robert, transferred to 
Company K. 

Garnett, Wm. R. 

Green, Henry. 

Garnett, Andrew T. 

Garnett, Wm. H., died in Virginia, 
May 20, 1863. 

Garnett W. B., wounded; died in 
Virginia, June 22, 1863. 

Hammond, Sam'l. 

Hammond, Wm. 

Johnson, Wm. 

Judge, Michael. 

Knox, Joel T., died in Virginia, 
April 30, 1863. 

Knox, Newt. A. 

Kirby, Nat. 

Ivilla, John A. 

Langley, Wm. F., transferred to 
Company K. 

Lindsay, John F 

McElroy, Geo. 

Murphy, John F. 

Means, Nimrod A. 

Marksberry, Sam'l. 

McDaniel, John H., died at Camp 
Henry, January 11, 1864. 

McDaniel, Thos. D. 

McCreary, Wm. H. 

Myrick, Morton. 

McElrath, Thos. J., captured at 
Mt. Sterling, Ky. 

Noel, John B. 

Pettit, Julius J. 

Pettit, James, died at Holston 

Pettit, John E. 

Pate, John. 

Perkins, Joseph. 

Pilow, John. 

Rodgers, Alex. M. 

Rodgers, Wm. 

Rudd, Jos. T. 

Reptka, Barney. 

Rigg, Harry B., wounded at Bean 
Station, Tenn. 

Ross, Campbell, killed at Mt. Ster- 
ling, Ky. 

Roberts, Robt. L. 

Reed, Thos. 

Rodgers, John. 

Ross, Wm. A. 

Stansifer, Wood G. 

Sullinger, James. 

Smith (or Schmidt) , John. 

Souther, John M. 

Summers, James W. 

Smith, Allen, transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Stevenson, Wm. G. 

Smith, Geo. 

Tigha, Wm. 

Thomas, Harrison, transferred to 
Company K. 

Utz, Thos. J. 

Vallandingham, Richard. 



Vaughan, Geo. B. 
Williams, Joel N., captured in Ken- 
Williams, Wm. B. 
Wells, Geo. W. 

West, John W. 
White, Leroy, died 

June 9, 1863. 
Whittaker, John T. 

in Virginia, 


J. T. Alexander, Captain. 

E. D. Whittaker, First Lieutenant, 
promoted to Captain, Com- 
pany K., December 10, 1862. 

E. J. Sanders, First Lieutenant, 
promoted from Second Lieu- 

W T. Bond, Second Lieutenant. 

W. H. Hammond, Third Lieu- 
tenant, resigned. 

J. P. Garvey, Third Lieutenant. 

J. P. Van Pelt, Orderly Sergeant, 
transferred to Company K. 

Thos. Violett, Orderly Sergeant. 

James P. McNeal, First Sergeant. 

Isaac T. Webster, Second Ser- 

Arnold, W. J., transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Allcorn, John, transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Ayres, John S., died April 1, 1863. 

Arnold, W. C, transferred to Cap- 
tain Marshall. 

Brown, J. W. 

Baucum, Allen, transferred to 
Company K. 

Bond, R. S. 

Baker, J. W. 

Burk, Patrick, transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Burk, John. 

Brock, Granville. 

Baldwin, T. D. 

Beaty, C. H. 

Beverly, Wm. 

Brock, W. J., died May 1, 1863. 

Beverly, Jesse. 

T. D. Alexander, Third Sergeant, 
transferred to Company K. 

Peter Gentry, Fourth Sergeant. 

Elijah Arnold, First Corporal. 

J. W. Moore, First Corporal. 

Patrick Gill, Second Corporal, 
transferred to Company K. 

T. J. Allnut, Second Corporal. 

John Rohrer, Third Corporal. 

T. W. Taylor, Third Corporal. 

John Montgomery, Fourth Cor- 
poral, transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

G. W. Douglas, Fourth Corporal. 

James Burk, Blacksmith. 

W. M. Early, Farrier. 

N. M. Sanders, Farrier. 

Bryant, Granville, transferred to 
Captain Marshall. 

Craigmyles, J. W., transferred to 
Company K. 

Craigmyles, Van Buren, trans- 
ferred to Company K. 

Clements, G. A., transferred to 
Company K. 

Childs, A. L., transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Calender, John, transferred to 
Company K. 

Craigmyles, R. W. 

Clements, Gustavus, transferred to 
Company K. 

Cook, J. P., transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Craigmyles, Sylvanus, transferred 
to Company K. 

Childs, G. M., transferred to Com- 
pany K. 



Coots, M. T. 

Catlett, T. A., transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Callahan, Dennis, transferred to 
Company K. 

Conover, John J., formerly of 
Buckner Guards. Re-enlisted. 

Darbrow, Wm., transferred to 
Company K. 

Davis, G. W. 

Darbrow, James. 

Douglas, G. W. 

Duncan, Squire, transferred to 
Company K. 

Douthit, James, transferred to 
Company K. 

Dorman, J. H. 

Early, W M. 

Edwards, J. W. 

Early, T. H. 

Early, Joseph. 

Furnish, W H., transferred to 
Company K. 

Gill, Michael, transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Garvey, Joseph, died at Blount- 
ville, Tenn., December 6, 1862. 

Garvey, B. E. 

Garvey, James. 

Green, J. L. 

Green, G. W., died March 1, 1863. 

Gill, Matthew, transferred to 
Company K. 

Hartsough, J. C. 

Hammond, J. A. 

Hearen, \V. T. 

Hopkins, Benj. 

Holliday, Geo. W. 

Herrington, J. H. 

Hopkins, T. H., wagoner. 

Jackson, Andrew. 

Jones, Alonzo, transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Jagers, Joseph. 

Jones, L.> died April 20, 1863. 

Kemper, G. G. 

King, J. T., transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Kemper, J. P. 

Llewellyn, John, transferred to 
Company K. 

Lyons, James, transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Lewis, G. T., died at Crank s Gap, 
Va., May 16, 1S63. 

Lewis, John. 

Lewis, Joseph. 

McDermott, Leander, transferred 
to Company K. 

Maddox, James. 

Minor, Gideon. 

McCreary, James K. 

Minor, E. S. 

May, G. W 

May, Hezekiah, transferred to 
Captain Marshall. 

McGaffic, Wm., transferred to 
Captain Gathright. 

Nichols, Ed, transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Nuttall, Thomas, transferred to 
Captain Marshall. 

Nuttall, \V. L-, transferred to Cap- 
tain Marshall. 

O'Donnel, Patrick, transferred to 
Company K. 

Orr, Richard H., transferred to 
Company K. 

Osborne, D. L. 

Osborne, Thomas. 

Poland, J. J., transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Poland, Jesse, transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Poland, D. L., captured in Ken- 

Perry, M., transferred to Captain 

Pate, John, transferred to Captain 



Rodgers, N. B. 

Rossel, E. T. 

Renslaw, S. P., transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Russel, E. A. 

Sanders, Wm. 

Smith, R. P. 

Smith, J. H., transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Spangler, Ed R., transferred to 
Company K. 

Sanders, N. M., transferred to 
Company K. 

Smith, J. A., transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Stiggers, John. 

Stiggers, W R. 

Slaughter, A. T., died at Holstou 
Springs, July i, 1863. 

Slaughter, W. P. 

Slaughter, R. P. 

Steward, S. M., transferred to 
Company K. 

Sanders, \V. F., transferred to 
Compaii}- K. 

Stevenson, Flourry, transferred to 
Captain Marshall. 

Sullenger, John T., transferred to 
Captain Scott. 

Todd, O. P.., died at Holston 
Springs, March 20, 1863. 

Threlkeld, G. B. 

Vallandingham, Geo. 

Whittingham, Harr}-. 

West, Newt. S. 

Wood, D. D. 

Webster, J. T. 

Waldrop, S. S. 

White, Dan'l, transferred to Cap- 
tain Marshall. 


Thomas E. Moore, Captain, 
wounded at Mossy Creek. 

Robert T. Garrard, First Lieuten- 
ant, wounded. 

James T. Jenkins, Second Lieu- 

W X. Ewing, Second Lieutenant. 

Jno. Makemson, Third Lieutenant. 

Ben. T. Hume, First Sergeant. 

W J. Turner, First Sergeant. 

John B. Cason', Second Sergeant. 

John E. Lightfoot, Second Ser- 

Asbury, James S. 

Asbury, Robert F. 

Asbury, Sam'l S., died in hospital 

November 15, 1862. 
Adams, S. F. 
Bird, Columbus, captured at Rhea- 

town, October 11, 1863. 
Burgess, Henry. 
Boston, Frank A. 
Bradshaw, Alex. 

Wm. A. Moore, Third Sergeant. 

E. J. Rawlings, Third Sergeant. 

John W Dance, Fourth Sergeant. 

A. J. Rawlings, Fourth Sergeant. 

Joseph Brann, Fifth Sergeant, 
died at Jonesville, Va., Febru- 
ary, 1863. 

W G. Barker, Fifth Sergeant. 

Joseph R. Ellis, First Corporal. 

F A. Boston, Second Corporal. 

Geo. T. Routt, Third Corporal. 

John Howk, Fourth Corporal. 

James M. McCandless, Farrier. 

Beagle, S. K. 

Curry, Benj. F. 

Carter, Obediah, died June, 1863. 

Corbin, Wm. F., shot while re- 
cruiting. Order of Burnside. 

Cownths, Jonas, died, Jonesville, 
Va., February, 1863. 

Cahill, Thomas. 

Caldwell, A. J. 

Caldwell, Alex. 



Colvin, Nimrod. 

Colvin, Beverly M. 

Collier, L. F. 

Crawford, J. M. 

Colvin, Minor. 

Dickens, Absolom C. 

Day, Lewis. 

Draper, Martin. 

Dorman, James M. 

Dance, Thos. B. 

Darnell, John. 

Ellis, James, died at Holston 

Springs, June, 1863. 
Ewing, John J. 
Ewing, Satn'l T. 
Ewing, Joel, wounded. 
Fogle, David K. 
Finn, Patrick. 
Forsythe, James. 
Fogle, Geo. W. 
Furnish, J. T. 
Garrett, John B. 
Howk, John. 
Hume, Samuel F 
Hill, Theodore M. 
Harrington, Philip. 
Henry, Edward. 
Ingles, Tyra M. 
Justice, Isaac D. 
Kidwell, Isaac, captured while on 

picket, March 21, 1863. 
Kirkwood, Cushenberry (W C). 
Keith, Wm. 
Lowe, Moses. 
Lowe, Samuel. 
Lovingood, N. J. 
Lightfoot, Elkin D. 
Lightfoot, John (E.). 
McKinney, Wm., wounded. 
Morin, Frank S- 
McCann, Frank. 
Marshall, Robt. F. 
Mann, Livingston. 
Myers, Geo. F- 
McKinney, John T. 

McGraw, T. J., shot by order of 

Martin, James, transferred from 
Company H. 

Morin, Andrew. 

Nelson, Theodore P. 

Newman, John W 

Orr, Morris, killed Feb. 13, 1864. 

Oldfields, Jesse S. 

Perry, Oliver. 

Phillips, John C. 

Porter, Wesly. 

Rule, Geo. R. 

Robinson, John. 

Robinson, Francis M. 

Richison, Samuel. 

Riley, Alfred. 

Riley, James. 

Ravena, Jacob. 

Rawlings, Perry. 

Rice, Willis. 

Routt, Thornton D. 

Skinner, Silas. 

Sellers, James H. 

Stowers, David L. 

Shively, Andrew J. 

Shoemaker, Andrew J. 

Turner, Wm. J. 

Taylor, Jasper. 

Tomlin, Christian. 

Thompson, Joseph L., captured in 

Thompson, John H, captured 
February 13, 1864. 

Taylor, Joseph F 

Tomlin, Henry E. 

Victor, John W 

Vance, James. 

Vance, Peter, captured in Ken- 

Williams, John T. 

Williams, Pope W. 

Williams, Wm. P. 

Williams, Wm. 

Yelton, Wm. H. 




M. T. Pryor, Captain, promoted to 

Sam P. Duncan, Captain. 

John N. Tague, First Lieutenant, 

Henry H. Adcock, First Lieuten- 
ant, promoted from Second 

Sinnet Duncan, Second Lieuten- 

Archie W. Smith, Jr., Second 

Wm. Buchanan, First Sergeant. 

Thomas J. McElrath, Second Ser- 

D. T. Coleman, Second Sergeant. 

James T. Buchanan, Third Ser- 

Ashby, Z. K., transferred to Fifth 
Kentucky, May iS, 1863. 

Adcock, Lawson. 

Barriger, Isaac T. 

Brain, Win., died at Holston 
Springs, March 24, 1863. 

Barriger, Robert G., died at Leba- 
non, Va., January 10, 1S63. 

Ball, Claybourn B. 

Beck, Wm., transferred to Captain 

Butcher, John Newt. 

Burrows, James W. 

Beasly, Robt. 

Bryant, Tully, transferred to Cap- 
tain Jessee. 

Bain, Wm. A. 

Banks, G. W., transferred to 
Colonel Hawkins' Regiment. 

Barriger, James W. 

Billingsly, R. B. 

Connell, Thos. B. 

Coleman, Dan'l T. 

Clem, Coleman C. 

Connell, Albert W. 

Wm. T. Scott, Fourth Sergeant,, 
transferred to Captain Mar- 

Cavallo G. Mayfield, Fourth Ser- 

Humphrey May, Fifth Sergeant, 
died in Lee Count}-, Va., Jan- 
uary 29, 1863. 

Albert C. Norvill, Fifth Sergeant. 

James F. Roberts, First Corporal. 

Richard H. Strother, Second Cor- 

A. P Pierce, Third Corporal. 

Thomas R. Powell, Fourth Cor- 
poral, died at Holston Springs, 
April 8, 1S63. 

Ziba King, Fourth Corporal. 

Caplinger, A. D. 

Caplinger, James F. 

Caplinger, James W 

Campbell, James L. 

Douglas, Wm. H, transferred to> 
Captain Marshall. 

Delany, W A. 

Delany, L- L- 

Ennis, George. 

Ely, John A. 

Edwards, James. 

Fresh, Walter A. 

Fisher. Theophilus. 

Gossom, Wm. F. 

Gecoby, Wm., transferred to Cap- 
tain Marshall. 

Glasscock, Wm. P. 

Holsclaw, Wm. 

Holsclaw, Elijah. 

Hisle, John. 

Humston, Wm. A. 

Horton, Minor. 

Humston, T. M.. transferred to 
Captain Marshall. 

Huston, M. 



Jackson, James D. 

Jenkins, Wm. L- 

Jenkins, Fred'k R. 

Jones, T. 

Kibble, E. G. 

Lee, Levi H. 

Lamaster, Abraham, transferred 
to Captain Marshall. 

Lamaster, Hugh. 

Martin, John E. F. (or T.) 

Moore, George, transferred to 
Captain Marshall. 

Moscow, Rich'd B. 

May, Wm. B. 

May, A. J. 

Martin, Albert, died at Jonesville, 
Va., January 23, 1863. 

Morgan, Alfred, died at Holston 
Springs March 24, 1863. 

Metts, Alfred. 

May, G. W. 

Maline, H. C, transferred to Cap- 
tain Marshall. 

Mead, Sharmon. 

Maddox, James W. 

Malloy, Peter A. 

Mathis, Lee. 

Nevill, Jas. R. 

Neves, B. B. 

Peterson, Joseph. 

Pritchett, E. H. 

Perry, Benj., transferred to Cap- 
tain Marshall. 

Parks, Wm. T. 

Powell, John R. 

Piles, Wm. H., transferred to Cap- 
tain Marshall. 

Pritchard, E. D. 

Powers, S. 

Powers, H. 

Ransdall, G. T., transferred to 

Captain Marshall. 
Sidebottom, W. A., transferred to 

Captain Marshall. 
Stansberry, Leander. 
Sams, G. W. 

Scott, Joseph H., died at Jones- 
ville, Va., January 15, 1863. 
Smith, Henry L. 
Sims, Silas G., transferred to 

Captain Marshall. 
Sams, James R. 
Spillman, John H. 
Scott, P. C. 
Speaks, John P., transferred from 

Captain Jessee. 
Sibert, Henry. 
Smith, Thomas. 
Tharp, G. A. 
Turner, Wm. A., transferred to 

Captain Marshall. 
Vannice, John, transferred from 

Company F. 
Vancliver, W. G. 
Williams, Mose V 
Wilson, Travis, transferred to 

Captain Marshall. 
Wilson, Wm. 
Wilson, R. S. 
Wilson, D. E. 
Wilson, Henry, died at Holston 

Springs, March 6, 1863. 
Willis, John P. 
Wells, James W. 
Wells, Barney. 
Williams, George. 
Whitmore, Ed D., transferred to 

Captain Marshall. 
Young, D., transferred to Captain 





H. L. Giltner, Captain, promoted 
to Colonel. 

Thomas M. Barrett, Captain, pro- 
moted October 6, 1862. 

Geo. S. Wood, First Lieutenant. 

Wm. Hayden, Second Lieutenant. 

Lewis O'Neal, Third Lieutenant. 

Lewis S. Ellis, First Sergeant. 

John D. Cox, First Sergeant. 

Scott T. Souther, Second Sergeant. 

R. M. Souther, Third Sergeant. 

Anderson, John. 
Arnold, J. 

Brown, James C. 

Boorom, George, captured and ex- 

Bradley, Wm. H. 

Bradley, James A., wounded and 
captured at Mt. Sterling, 1864. 
Died at Camp Douglas prison. 

Bridges, Joe. 

Baker, J. F. 

Booker, Robert B. 

Bartlett, W. Taylor. 

Barrett, Richard. 

Baker, Robert, detailed in Med. 

Bohon, Wm. J. 

Bashaw, Thomas P. 

Brown, James. 

Bower, Charles J. 

Benny, W. 

Craig, Lewis. 

Cox, W. A. 

Carrico, Wm. T. 

Carrico, John T. 

Campbell, John W 

Craig, L- N. 

Chadwell, James, died December 
22, 1862. 

Duvall, Sam L. 

Darling, A. Frank. 

Demint, Wm., transferred to Com- 
pany B. 

Ellis, Geo. C, Fourth Sergeant, 
detailed as Forage Master. 

Burrows, R. W., Fifth Sergeant. 

Bond, R. L., First Corporal. 

Butts, John W., First Corporal. 

McCann, J. J., Second Corporal. 

Hayden, Thomas, Third Corporal, 
became Chief Bugler, Novem- 
ber 25, 1862. 

Coghill, James, Third Corporal. 

Cox, D. M., Third Corporal. 

Dugan, Wm. J., captured and ex- 

Disinger, David. 

Ellis, Wm. C. 

Ellis, David, transferred to Com- 
pany B. 

Ellis, Charles C, transferred to 
Company B. 

Ellis, J. A., transferred to Com- 
pany B. 

Ellis, Robert. 

Ellis, L- S., Quartermaster-Ser- 
geant, transferred to Com- 
pany K. 

Ethridge, J. A. 

Easterday, Abraham. 

Forsee, G. N. 

Gardner, G. T. 

Galfus, Wm. 

Guthrie, W. S. 

Hudson, Robert. 

Hayden, Fielding V. 

Hayden, James M. 

Harrison, R. F., promoted to Ser- 

Hayden, Ben. 

Hautzer, W. H. 

Hays, Wm. 

Highfield, John, transferred to 
Company B. 

Heron, James. 

Hayden, B. F., died at Jonesville, 
February 8, 1863. 



Hayden, R. F. 
Hayden, W. H. 

Johnson, W. A., captured and ex- 
Johnson, H. 

Kemper, Samuel, transferred to 
Company K. 

Kelly. Clint. W 

Lindsay, J. W. 

Lindsay, J. S. , transferred to Com- 
pany B. 

Little, Willis. 

Langstaff, John. 

Lacefield, S. M. 

McCann, W L., transferred to 
Company K. 

Mason, J. P. 

McMannis, A. J. 

Mosgrove, Geo. D., on detached 
service at regimental and 
brigade headquarters. 

Martin, John M. 

McCreary, David. 

Montgomery, G. 

Netherland, M. C. 

North, James O. 

O'Neal, T. J. 

O'Neal, J. W. 

O'Neal, R. 

O'Neal, D. B. 

Roy, Thomas. 

Robertson, Wm. 

Southard, James L. 

Smith, Martin. 

Searcy, Abe E. 

Scott, S. M. 

Searcy, A. G., died at Blouutville, 
January 19, 1863. 

Searcy, Wm. B., died at Blount- 
ville, December 17, 1S62. 

Sanders, Henry R. 

Starling, Isaac. 

Sanderson, W H. 

Shirley, W. O. B. 

Sanders, C. 

Spencer, J. W. 

Stemper, Fred. 

Tandy, James P. 

Taylor, T. M. 

Taylor, Wm. J. 

Tingle, R., transferred to Captain 

Tharp, J. 

Vannice, J. C, transferred to Com- 
pany E. 

Vories, J. G. 

Vories, John. 

Whitehead, J. R., died at Blount- 
ville, November 25, 1862. 

Williams, Geo. W. 

Wayland, Daniel. 

Wayland, W. A., died at Jones- 
ville, February 1, 1863. 

Wayland, Butler. 

Wells, Wash. 

Williams, Nat. H. 

Webster, Wm. 

Williams, O. P. 

Wood, Alonzo, died in Hospital 
Emory & Henry, Virginia. 


D. L. Revill, Captain. 

James T. Willis, First Lieutenant, 
promoted to Captain, Decem- 
ber 22, 1862. 

T. D. Redd, Second Lieutenant, 
promoted to First Lieutenant 
December 22, 1862. 

James E- Revill, Second Lieu- 

V. R. Belew, Second Lieutenant. 

Jo. C. Revill, Third Lieutenant. 

L. M. Bond, Third Lieutenant, 
promoted to Second Lieu- 
tenant, January 12, 1863. 

Cyrus W. Threlkeld, First Ser- 

Frank Stair, Second Sergeant. 

W. H. Moore, Third Sergeant. 



W. V. Sale, Fourth Sergeant. 
H. B. Gross, Fifth Sergeant. 
Hardin Davis, First Corporal. 
W. A. McNeas, First Corporal. 

Ames, John. 

Ayers, John. 

Bridges, B. T. 

Brock, W. H., captured in Ken- 

Beard, H. J. 

Brissey, F. J. 

Brown, S. B. 

Brumback, Wm. S. 

Bruce, A. H. 

Berlew, J. R. 

Baleon, V. R. 

Bruce, Wm. 

Casseday, James. 

Carter, H. M. 

Carter, T. H. 

Caldwell, S. 

Clark, W M. 

Cox, Sam'l C. 

Conover, J. 

Cammack, G. 

Crouch, J. H. 

Conover, Peter. 

Combs, W. C. 

Casseday, J. M. 

Cates, Wesley. 

Calender, Wm. 

Cook, A. F. 

Clark, Zack. 

Crouch, G. 

Carter, N. 

Cox, Thomas. 

Deringer, Joseph. 

De Jarnett, W H., transferred to 
Captain Jessee. 

Dunavant, W. H. 

Dixon, T. K. 

Davidson, H. J. 

DeWitt, Wm. 

Davis, Hardin. 

Downs, E. J. 

Wm. T. Steele, Second Corporal. 
Joseph N. Carter, Third Corporal. 
Warren Pryor, Farrier. 
J. B. Rodgers, Bugler. 

Evans, Wm. T. 
Fisher, Nat. 
Ford, W. W. 
Finley, F. M., died. 
Fighn, Jesse. 
Gross, Gilbert. 
Gallagher, Peter. 
Gravitt, W. H. 
Green, John W. 
Green, John J. 
Green, John. 
Harrison, T. D. 
Hoover, George. 
Hall, E. D. 
Hutton, Wm. 
Hutton, John. 
Holiday, James. 
Humphreys, Andy. 
Hammond, N. B. 
Judea, Wallace. 
Juett, William. 
Kuhn, W H. 
Kirby, John. 
Kalander, W. 
Mitchell, Robt. 
Moreland, Geo. 
Mayberry, Wm. 
McHatton, J. J. 
McComis, P. 
O'Banon, P. T. 
Oliver, Henry. 
Poe, Samuel. 
Pettit, C. G. 
Reddin, John. 
Reddin, Jacob. 
Rector, M. 

Russell, Willis (or Wm.). 
Razor, Nat. 
Ransdall, M. D. 
Roland, N. 
Reading, Henry. 



Redd, T. D. 
Ross, W. A. 
Rodgers, John, transferred 

Captain Scott. 
Rodgers, J. B. 
Reddin, G. 
Reddin, James. 
Sale, S. B. 
Simpson, Abe. 
Spencer, G. D. 
Scott, Dan. 
Suter, John M. 
Suter, James M. 
Simpson, James. 

Sebree, John. 
Smithers, Ezekiel. 
to Sale, Austin. 

Sechrest, James D. 
Stiger, James. 
Smith, Jesse. 
Thornton, John. 
Thornton, Thos. 
Threlkeld, W S. 
Wilhoite, Wm. 
Wingate, Cyrus. 
Wilson, Martin. 
Welch, Thos. 
Webb, Joseph F. 


Richard O. Gathright, Captain. 
J. Crit Ireland, First Lieutenant. 
W. W. Pierce, Second Lieutenant. 
D. P. Mitchell, Third Lieutenant. 
G. W. Welch, First Sergeant. 
Wm. Helm, First Sergeant. 
W. W. White, First Sergeant, capt- 
ured at Moccasin Gap. 
J. H. Caplinger, Second Sergeant. 
W. Mitchell, Third Sergeant. 
John H. Calloway, Third Sergeant. 

Arrington, Lafe. 
Bates, John. 
Branch, John. 
Crabb," W. L- 
Crabb, S. F. 

Callaway, O., captured in Ken- 
Callis, C 
Callis, Albert. 
Callis, Camden. 
Conway, Thomas. 
Colbert, W. J. 
Callis, Hampton. 
Crafton, J. 
Crabb, W. B. 
Doyle, Geo. W. 

R. A. Hoskins, Fourth Sergeant. 
W. B. Crabb, Fifth Sergeant. 
A. J. Thorn, First Corporal. 
W. Burton, Second Corporal. 
J. W. Harmon, Third Corporal, 

died at Lebanon, Va., January 

4, 1863. 
W. McGavic, Third Corporal. 
Lafe Bell, Fourth Corporal. 
W. W. Hunt, Fourth Corporal, 

captured in Kentucky. 

Davis, Flem., killed at Carters Sta- 
tion, Tenn. 
Ellison, L. 
English, Thos. D. 
Fible, John. 
Franey, Pat. 
Forsee, Geo. 
Faulkner, L. W 
Forsee, Thos. 
Glass, Conway. 
Glass, F. M. 
Hedges, R. 
Hunt, W. W. 
Harmon, O. P. 
loskins, R. A. 
Hardin, J. R. 



Henry, Barney. 
Kendall, Thos. D. 
Kidwell, O. A. 
Kent, David. 
Lents, Geo. 
Mack, James. 
Mulligan, John H. 
Martin, James. 
McGaffic, W C. 
McGlochlin, Edward. 
McGlochlin, Henry. 
McGrother, E. 
Prewitt, G. W. 
Patton, Dolph H. 
Robbins, John. 
Riddle, W. T. 
Richmond, J. W. 
Richmond, A. 

Rolston, Joseph. 

Staples, S. A. 

Staples, F M. 

Sullivan, W. S. 

Sparks, J. F., captured in Ken- 

Sandifer, Thos., captured in battle, 
Mooresburg, Tenn. 

Smyser, Geo., killed at Newcastle, 
Ky., September, 1862. 

Shirley, J. W. 

Tucker, W D. 

Tungett, J. X. 

Tungett, G. W. 

White, Newton. 

Wells, D. N. 

Welch, Geo. W 


John J. Marshall, Captain, killed at 
Russell Court House, Va. 

H. S. Chilton, First Lieutenant, 
promoted to Captain. 

Wm. C. Edrington, Second Lieu- 
tenant, promoted to First 

Wm. J. Turner, Third Lieutenant, 
promoted to Second Lieuten- 

S. Hall, Third Lieutenant. 

Charles O. Chilton, First Sergeant. 

James Tingle.'Second Sergeant. 

Thos. Batts, Third Sergeant. 

Arnold, Wm. C. 
Adams, Wm. 
Beck, Wm. 
Bryant, G. 
Berry, N. S. 
Butcher, J. N. 
Bishop, Thos. 
Callahan, Dennis. 
Clemmons, G. A. 
Cravens, Jesse. 

J. W. Carpenter, Third Sergeant. 

J. T. Berry, Fourth Sergeant. 

J. S. Turner, Fifth Sergeant, died 

at Rogersville, January 18, 

Joshua Turner, Fifth Sergeant. 
W L- Nuttall, First Corporal. 
Joseph Turner, Second Corporal. 
J. S. Turner, Second Corporal. 
S. Harrell, Second Corporal. 
Joseph T. Chilton, Third Corporal. 
R. Tingie, Third Corporal. 
F. M. Humston, Fourth Corporal. 

Darnell, Alex. 

Douglass, W H. 

Darnell, W. H. 

Douthit, J. L. 

Darnold, Thomas. 

Darnall, Wm. 

Edrington, C. J., died, Cassel 

Woods, Va., June 16, 1863. 
Green, Geo. 
Harrill, J. S. 



Hall, Sylvester. 

Hampton, T. M. 

Humston, T. M. 

Herrell, Saml. 

Jones, F. C 

Jacobi, Wm. 

Kendall, J. W., transferred to 

Colonel Hawkins. 
Kendall, J. R.. transferred to 

Colonel Hawkins. 
Lamaster, Hugh J. 
Lamaster, Abe. 
May, H., transferred to Colonel 

Mathis, James. 
Malone, H. 
Moore, Geo. 
Nuttall, T. B. 
Nuttall, Thos. 
Piles, W. H. 
Perry, W. M. 
Perry, B. 
Perry, M. 
Ransdell, G. T., transferred to 

Colonel Hawkins. 
Robertson, Ben T. 
Sidebottom, W A., transferred to 

Colonel Hawkins. 
Scott, W. F. 

Sims, Silas. 

Stevenson, F., died May, 1863. 

Smith, R. P. 

Tingle, Roland, transferred to 
Colonel Hawkins. 

Tingle, Reuben. 

Tingle, J. A., transferred to Col. 

Taylor, F. W. 

Tharp, W. J. 

Tharp, Jesse. 

Tharp, Marshall. 

Tharp, Jordan. 

Tharp, Wm. 

Thornsburg, E. D., Ordnance Ser- 

Vaughan, Silas, transferred to 
Colonel Hawkins. 

Violett, Wm. M. 

Wilson, R. J., transferred to 
Colonel Hawkins. 

Wilson, Travis. 

Wilson, Shelby. 

White, Dan'l. 

Whitmore, Ed. 

Whipple, G. S. 

Wilson, Wm. 

Wilson, John. 

Young, D. 


E. D. Whitaker, Captain, trans- 
ferred from Company C. 

Nat. M. Sanders, First Lieutenant, 
transferred from Company C. 

John T. Vanpelt, Second Lieuten- 
ant, transferred from Com- 
pany C. 

R. H. Orr, Third Lieutenant, 
transferred from Company C. 

J. A. Smith, Orderly Sergeant. 

Thos. J. Uitz, Second Sergeant, 
transferred from Scott's Com- 

Ed R. Spangler, Third Sergeant, 

transferred from Alexander's 

David Ellis, Fourth Sergeant, 

transferred from Barrett's 

Squire Duncan, Fifth Sergeant, 

transferred from Alexander's 

Michael Gill, Fifth Sergeant, 

transferred from Alexander's 

Patrick Gill, First Corporal. 



W. J. Arnold, Second Corporal. 
Jeptha Arnold, Second Corporal, 

transferred from Alexander's 

T. D. Alexander, Third Corporal, 

transferred from Alexander's 


Allcorn, John, transferred from 
Alexander's Company. 

Allcorn, Benj., transferred from 
Scott's Company. 

Bancum, Allen, transferred from 
Captain Alexander's Com- 

Burke, Patrick, transferred from 
Captain Alexander's Com- 

Craigmyles, Van Buren, trans- 
ferred from Captain Alex- 
ander's Company. 

Craigmyles, Sylvanus, transferred 
from Captain Alexander's 

Craigmyles, J. W., transferred from 
Captain Alexander' Com- 

Childs, Geo. M., transferred from 
Captain Alexander's Com- 

Childs, A. L., transferred from 
Captain Alexander's Com. 

Catlett, T. A., transferred from 
Captain Alexander's Com- 

Cook, J. N., transferred from Cap- 
tain Alexander's Company. 

Callahan, Dennis. 

Callahan, E. D., transferred from 
Captain Alexander's Com- 

Clements, G. A., transferred from 
Captain Alexander's Com- 

Clements, G. 

E. J. Nichols, Third Corporal. 
James Douthit, Fourth Corporal, 

transferred from Alexander's 

Geo. W. Holliday, Blacksmith. 
Thos. Hayden, Bugler, transferred 

from Barrett's Company. 

Calender, John, transferred from 
Captain Alexander's Com- 

Clemon, G. C, transferred from 
Captain Alexander's Com- 

Darbrough, Wm., transferred from 
Captain Alexander's Com- 

Dye, John. 

Ellis, Louis S., transferred from 
Captain Barrett's Company. 

Ellis, Charles C, transferred from 
Captain Barrett's Company. 

Franklin, Robt., died at Lebanon, 
Va., December 28, 1862. 

Flusser, Guy, of Louisville, Ky., 
killed at Mt. Sterling. 

Gill, Matthew, transferred from 
Alexander's Company. 

Gill, Michael, transferred from 
Alexander's Company. 

Hartsough, J. C, transferred from 
Alexander's Company. 

Highfield, John, transferred from 
Barrett's Company. 

Jones, Alonzo, transferred from 
Alexander's Company. 

Kemper, Sam'l, transferred from 
Alexander's Company. 

King, J. T., transferred from Alex- 
ander's Company. 

Lewellyn, John, transferred from 
Alexander's Company. 

Longley, W. F., transferred from 
Scott's Company. 

Lyons, James, transferred from 
Alexander's Company. 


May, Wesley, transferred from 
Alexander's Company. 

May, G. \V 

Minor, Gideon, transferred from 
Alexander's Company. 

Minor, E. S. 

Minor, Edward, transferred from 
Alexander's Company. 

McDorment, Leander, transferred 
from Alexander's Company. 

Mosgrove, Geo. D., transferred 
from Barrett's Company by 
request of Colonel Giltner. 
Never served with the Com- 
pany ; Clerk in Adjutant-Gen- 
eral's office. 

McCann, \Y. L., transferred from 
Barrett's Company. 

Montgomery, John, transferred 
from Alexander's Company. 

Xichols, E. J., transferred from 
Alexander's Company. 

O'Donnell. Patrick, transferred 
from Alexander's Company. 

Poland, J. J., transferred from 

Alexander's Company. 
Poland, Jesse, transferred from 

Alexander's Company 
Rohrer, John, transferred from 

Alexander's Company. 
Renshaw, S. P., transferred from 

Alexander's Company. 
Riley, James. 
Smith, J. H., transferred from 

Alexander's Company. 
Sanders, Wm., transferred from 

Alexander's Companv. 
Sanders, "Whitfield, transferred 

from Alexander's Company. 
Stewart, S. M., transferred from 

Alexander's Company. 
Sanders. W. F. 
Thomas, Harrison, transferred 

from Scott's Company. 
Thornton, Charles, transferred 

from Fifth Kentucky. 

Company K, being the last company organized, was made up of 
officers and men from other companies, principally from that of 
Captain Alexander, which was a very large company. 

The foregoing muster-rolls are by no means perfect. They fail, 
excepting in a few instances, to show the list of killed, wounded, 
captured and missing, and many names, doubtless, are not correctly 



General Humphrey Marshall. 

"Yet, hear," quoth Howard, " calmly hear, 
Nor deem my words the words of fear; 
For who, in field or foray slack, 
Saw the blanch lion e'er fall back ? 
But thus to risk our Border flower 
In strife against a kingdom's power, 
Ten thousand Scots, 'gainst thousands three, 
Certes, were desperate policy." 

THE massive form of General Humphrey Marshall, an 
intellectual giant, presents itself vividly to my retro- 
spective eye, and demands a first and conspicuous place in my 
"picture gallery." His prominence, as an orator, lawyer, 
soldier and statesman, requires one to assign more space to 
him than I shall be able to accord to many other generals 
mentioned on succeeding pages. He was the first general 
under whom the brigade served, and the boys cherish fond 
recollections of the singularly kind-hearted, broad-minded, 
massive-bodied chieftain. 

Upon his graduation at West Point, in June, 1832, General 
Marshall was assigned to the regular army with the rank of 
second lieutenant. He immediately attracted the attention 
of General Cass, Secretary of War, who offered to place him 
in any branch of the service he should prefer. He was in 
the campaign against Black Hawk and the Sac Indians, and 
received honorable mention from Major-General Winfield 
Scott. There being no war, Lieutenant Marshall left the 
army, studied law and began the practice at Louisville, 
Ky., in November, 1834. In 1836, President Jackson called 
for volunteers to march to the Sabine to defend the frontiers 
of Louisiana against the Mexicans. A company was formed 
in Louisville, which elected Marshall captain. It did not 
march, however, as the battle of San Jacinto settled the 
status of Texas. In 1837, after an exciting contest, he was 
defeated for the Legislature by the Hon. S. S. Nicholas, who 




had just retired from the bench of the Court of Appeals. In 
the practice of law he at once took rank with the foremost 
of a strong and famous bar. 

At the outbreak of the Mexican war he promptly aban- 
doned the honors and emoluments of the bar to return to his 
first love, the army, as colonel of the Kentucky Cavalry 
Regiment which was mustered into service at Louisville, 
June 9, 1846. He greatly distinguished himself in that war 
for bravery and military acumen. At Buena Vista he gal- 
lantly charged the enemy at the head of his Kentuckians, 
and, at a critical moment, turned the tide of battle in favor 
of General " Rough and Ready's " army. At the close of the 
war he returned to Louisville, was nominated for the State 
Senate, declined the honor, and removed to a farm in Henry 
County, where he soon achieved the reputation of being prob- 
ably the most unsuccessful farmer in the State. It is not to 
be supposed that the farm received much attention from a 
mind profound in other thought. A Whig in politics, he was 
elected to Congress from the Louisville district in 1S49, and 
again elected in 185 1. In 1852, there being a vacancy in the 
United States Supreme Court, the Louisville bar, Kentucky 
Court of Appeals and the Kentucky delegation in Congress, 
both Whigs and Democrats, united in urging President Fill- 
more to appoint Marshall. The President would have done 
so, but was prevented by reason of an administrative rule 
which limited the successor of a justice to the district to 
which the deceased had been assigned. The President, how- 
ever, tendered him the mission to Central America, which he 
declined. In 1852 he was appointed minister plenipotentiary 
to China. In order to see what was most notable in the Old 
World, he went to England, thence to France, thence to 
Italy ; traversed the Egyptian desert between Cairo and Suez, 
arriving at Canton in April, 1853; thence he went to Shang- 
hai, where he resided until 1854. In this mission he 
achieved high standing as a diplomat. Returning home he 
defeated Colonel Wm. Preston for Congress, and, in 1857, 
was re-elected, defeating the Hon. Mr. Holt. Nominated by 
acclamation in 1859, he declined, not approving the platform 
which his party adopted, it simply declaring opposition to the 


Democratic party. He then became a Democrat and ably 
supported Breckinridge for the Presidency. About this time, 
his private fortune having been much neglected, he formed a 
partnership with ex-United States Senator Cooper, of Penn- 
sylvania, for the purpose of practicing his profession in the 
United States Supreme Court, Court of Claims and depart- 
ments at Washington City. The firm was successful, but at 
the outbreak of the Civil war the partnership was dissolved, 
and there being no other prospect for Colonel Marshall than 
to espouse the Southern cause, in the summer of 1861 he 
established a Confederate camp in Owen County, Ky., near 
Lusby's Mills, on a high hill which commanded an extensive 
view of the surrounding country. Hundreds of men as- 
sembled there to join the Confederate army, the majority of 
whom succeeded in making their way south, while some 
returned to their homes. Vallandingham's barn, near Owen- 
ton, was another rendezvous. Colonel Marshall made his 
way to Nashville September, 1861, where he was commis- 
sioned a brigadier-general and given an independent com- 
mand, styled " The Arm}- of Eastern Kentucky," which was 
expected to invade the State through the Eastern mountain 
passes. The fall of Fort Donelson frustrated this plan, and 
the little army was compelled to assume the defensive. A 
battle fought at Middle Creek, Floyd County, Ky., between 
General Marshall and General Garfield, in 1862, was not a 
very sanguinary affair ; both sides claimed the victory, but 
Garfield retired to Paintsville, while Marshall remained near 
the battlefield the rest of the winter. The movements of Mar- 
shall depended entirely upon occurrences in the West. His 
campaign through the winter of 186 1-2 was one of the hard- 
est ever endured by soldiers — being compelled to subsist on 
a country where agriculture was necessarily very limited, and 
to grind what little corn was to be had in diminutive, primi- 
tive water mills on the mountain streams, their utmost 
capacity being to grind about two bushels in twenty-four 
hours. Much of the time the men subsisted on parched 

A Federal force commanded by Major-General Cox at 
Princeton, Va., was surprised and defeated by General Mar- 


shall, in May, 1862. This victory relieved the Lynchburg 
& Knoxville Railroad, and Southwestern Virginia, of the 
presence of Federal troops. The general was highly com- 
plimented by General L,ee in a personal letter. 

When McClelland was defeated before Richmond it was 
deemed an auspicious time to invade Kentucky, and President 
Davis ordered General Marshall to prepare to command the 
invading forces. The President, however, made a mistake, 
much regretted by the army, by changing his mind and giv- 
ing the command to General Bragg. General Marshall was 
confessedly an admirably equipped man to command such an 
expedition. Thoroughly acquainted with the people and 
topography of the State — General Bragg was acquainted with 
neither — there is every reason to believe the invasion would 
have been more successful had Marshall been in command. 
He, like Bragg, was a "West Pointer;" both had served 
in the Mexican war; but Marshall was infinitely Bragg's 
superior in broad comprehensiveness of mind; in fact, 
was peculiarly adapted to the command of the army 
in Kentucky in 1862. 

At Mt. Sterling, Ky., General Marshall made a speech to 
his new recruits, the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, which, in 
the light of subsequent events, proved to be prophetic. He 
assured them that his personal knowledge of the men who 
were running the political machinery of the Federal govern- 
ment, and his acquaintance with their prominent military 
men, who had been his classmates at West Point and his 
comrades in Mexico, led him to believe that they would not 
easily be defeated in their relentless crusade against the 
Southland. He was aware that we were mere boys, who 
entertained the idea that we were out on a " frolicsome kind 
of a high roller," and that it would require but a brief time 
to roll back the masses of invading Northmen, a la Manassas. 
He said we must at once unload our minds of such " foolish 
notions," and prepare to endure a long siege and to see grim- 
visaged war in all its horrors. He stripped the war picture 
of all gilt and fancy tints, leaving in view nothing but a dark, 
forbidding perspective. The address was well-timed and 
convinced us that we were not there for a "rollicking frolic," 


but it by no means discouraged us, nor did it abate our 
enthusiasm for the cause of sunny Dixieland. 

When the retreat from Kentucky began, with our backs 
turned upon our homes and faces looking southward, there 
was no murmuring. The march to the old mother State, 
Virginia, was long, wearisome and disagreeable. 

It was on this march that we struck our first reall}- rough 
experience, when we encountered the heavy snowstorm, 
October 26, 1862. It caught us high up on a mountain on a 
narrow, winding road amid a dense forest. Some wagons in 
front having broken down, and being otherwise blockaded, 
we were forced to remain in the road on the mountain side 
all night in the deep snow, without food or fire, and in im- 
minent danger of being crushed by the snow-laden tree- 
branches falling all around us. This was by no means an 
inspiring time for singing the song, "Ain't you glad you 
joined the cavalry?" 

The Federal general, Carter, made a raid into Virginia 
from Kentucky in the winter of 1862-3, penetrating to the 
railroad at Bristol. The weather was intensely cold, and we 
had just made ourselves as comfortable as possible for the 
night, being in winter quarters at Lebanon, when the news 
came of Carter's movement. Tom Hayden's bugle horn 
sounded "boots and saddles," and in a short time we were 
facing the wintry blast, passing the night in our saddles 
instead of in our tents. After a hard march of several days 
and nights we finally, at nightfall, attacked Carter at Jones- 
ville, doing him little damage, as his main column was even 
then escaping into Kentucky through a gap in the Cumber- 
land Mountains near that village. Finding we were close 
upon the enemy, with a chance of intercepting him at that 
point, the command dashed forward at a trot, and it was here 
that, for nearly a mile, the road was strewn with playing 
cards which the boys, believing they were going into a bloody 
battle, had thrown away, not wishing to be ushered into the 
presence of God and the angels with the condemnatory cards 
in their pockets. As a faithful chronicler, however, I must 
state that after the " scrimmage " was over the boys gathered 
up the cards and never threw them away again. 


In the spring of 1863, General Marshall marched his cav- 
alry into Kentucky, the plan being to establish headquarters 
at Lexington. Generals Pegram and Jenkins were to co- 
operate with him, by attaching their commands to his, mak- 
ing a little army of occupation seven or eight thousand 
strong; but, Pegram on the left and Jenkins on the right, 
by pursuing independent movements, failed to co-operate, 
thereby frustrating the success of the enterprise. General 
Marshall, however, alarmed the Federals by making a 
demonstration on the town of Louisa, on the Big Sandy 
River. The place was strongly fortified on the side of our 
approach, and garrisoned by a brigade under command of 
General White. In order to carry it by storm, it would be 
necessary to charge up the side of a high hill, where trees 
had been felled, and in the face of the enemy's cannon and 
concealed musketry. The place was not worth taking, and 
it was plain that its capture would necessitate the slaughter 
of many of our boys, while there was grave doubt of our 
ability to capture it at all. The officers and men had been 
" spoiling for a fight" and clamoring to be led to fields of 
gore. It has been surmised that General Marshall led them 
to the front of this apparently impregnable place to satisfy 
their thirst for blood. Calling a council of war, he said, 
" Gentlemen, there is the enemy ; if you want to go up there 
I will lead you." Recognizing the foolhardiness of assault- 
ing such a fortress, they wisely decided that discretion was 
the better part of valor, and declined to sacrifice themselves. 
Thus this march resembled that of the King of France, who 
marched up the hill and then marched down again. 

We were much annoyed by the bushwhackers, many of 
whom we captured and then shot, or, in army phrase, we 
"lost" them. No mercy was shown to these bloodthirsty, 
skulking land pirates. 

The staff officers comprising General Marshall's military 
family were intrepid, efficient, accomplished gentlemen and 
soldiers. I now recall to memory the conspicuous figure of 
Captain Bart W Jenkins, the tall, dashing, impulsive aid-de- 
camp, brave as Marshal Lannes ; Captain Edward O. Guer- 
rant, A. A. G. ; Major Ed Crutchfield, Quartermaster- 


General, and Colonel Charles Marshall. Of the commanders 
of regiments and battalions I call to mind Colonel Giltner, 
Colonel Zeke Clay, Colonel Candall, Colonel Tom Johnson 
and Major Shawhan. There were others whom I can not at 
this time remember. 

Upon our return to Virginia, General Marshall was ordered 
to report to General Joe Johnston, in Mississippi, the brigade 
being now placed under command of General Wm. Pres- 

This permanently ended our association with General 
Marshall. He proceeded to Mississippi where General John- 
ston desired to give him command of a division, but was 
overrruled by the authorities at Richmond, and another gen- 
eral was appointed to the place. He was then offered the 
brigade of General Lloyd Tilgham, recently killed, but, in- 
stead of accepting it, he tendered the resignation of his 
commission, which was reluctantly accepted. He then went 
to Richmond and began the practice of law, June, 1863. 
There he was elected to the Confederate Congress where 
he served until the stars and bars were furled at Appo- 

Had General Marshall remained in the army and been 
given a command commensurate with his great ability, I 
doubt not his name would have been as illustrious in war as 
is his fame as a jurist and statesman. 

General Marshall was a large man, weighing probably three 
hundred pounds ; possibly more. But notwithstanding his 
massive avoirdupois, he carried himself erect and gracefully. 
With the possible exceptions of General John C. Breckin- 
ridge and General S. B. Buckner, I do not think I ever saw 
a more soldier-like figure on horseback. He was by no means 
slow or sluggish in movement. His head was large and his 
face pleasant, reflecting the kindness of his heart. He was a 
charming conversationalist, a master of language. 


General Wiiaiam Preston. 

" All hail the proud crest of the brave cavalier, 
His banner unconquered, resistless his spear." 

General Preston, who succeeded Marshall in command of 
the troops in Southwestern Virginia, was a man of proud, 
aristocratic lineage, and came to us laden with laurels won in 
the political arena, as a diplomat in royal courts and as a 
dashing soldier on many a hard-fought battlefield. His proud 
banner and gleaming sword had been notably conspicuous in 
the memorable charge across Stone River, where he com- 
manded the right wing of General Breckinridge's division, 
and where, facing two Federal divisions and fifty-eight can- 
non, 1,700 Confederates, out of 7,000, fell during the brief 
but terrible melee. In that battle nearly all of his staff offi- 
cers were killed or wounded. 

One morning, soon after he took command of the Marshall 
brigade, I had occasion to visit the general's headquarters, 
and, finding him at breakfast, was charmed by his courtly 
manners and thoughtful courtesy 

He and his military family were indulging in reminiscences, 
the special topic of conversation being the charge at Stone 
River. Captain Joe C. S. Blackburn, aid-de-camp, always 
voluble and entertaining, was the principal talker. He 
humorously remarked that General Preston had seemed de- 
termined to have his staff officers killed off at Stone River, 
and congratulated himself that the general's fell purpose had 
failed in regard to him, and that he felt that his life was 
"charmed." The general laughingly rejoined: "That's 
all bosh, Blackburn ; I'll have you killed in the very next 
battle." Seeing me standing at "attention," the courtly 
general ordered me to sit down and eat breakfast — a com- 
mand which I was not slow to obey, the behest reminding 
me of the words of Roderick Dhu : 

" Enough, enough; sit down and share 
A soldier's couch, a soldier's fare." 

General Preston retained command in Virginia but a short 
time, being transferred to the army of General Bragg in time 
to greatly distinguish himself in the battle of Chickamauga. 


I quote from another author: " General Preston commanded 
a division at Chickamauga, where, after the repulse by 
General George H. Thomas of I^ongstreet, with Hood's di- 
vision, under McLaws, and the repulse of another attack by 
Hindman's division, Preston ordered Grade's brigade to fix 
bayonets and renew the attack, and, pressing after him with 
his whole force, he gained Missionary Ridge, and drove the 
Federals in confusion headlong down the ridge and through 
every avenue of escape to Chattanooga. His great victory, 
however, was gained at terrible cost — losing out of 4,078 
men, 14 officers and 184 men killed, 63 officers and 1,014 men 
wounded, and 61 missing, a total of 1,336, or one-third. The 
correspondent of the London Times said that Preston's bear- 
ing in that charge would rank in history with that of Dessaix 
recovering the lost battle of Marengo." 

General Preston was a notably handsome man, with accom- 
plishments to grace any station, 



Colonel Henry Liter Giltner. 

" To horse! to horse! the standard flies; 
The bugles sound the call." 

COLONEL. GILTNER entered the Confederate army at 
Munfordville, Ky., in September, 1861, joining the 
Buckner Guards as a private soldier. Within a short time 
he was ordered to report to General Humphrey Marshall, 
who assigned him to duty as aid-de-camp on his staff. 

In July, 1862, with M. T. Pryor, Nathan Parker, Peter 
Everett and sixteen other Kentuckians, he started upon the 
hazardous service of recruiting in Kentucky. The State 
was full of Federal troops, and before the party reached the 
bluegrass region, all except Giltner, Pryor, Parker and 
Everett concluded that the enterprise was fraught with too 
many dangers, and declined to go any further. Captain 
Everett stopped in Montgomery, his home, while the others, 
after many narrow escapes, losing their horses and clothes, 
walking through fields and forests by night, and hiding dur- 
ing the day, finally reached the border counties, in which 
they intended to operate. 

At that time Colonel Giltner was a lithe, graceful man, of 
dignified mien, slightly above medium height, symmetrically 
proportioned, dark complexion, hair and beard black as the 
raven's wing, gray eyes, and about thirty-three years old. 
He was neatly attired, and when he became colonel of the 
Fourth Kentucky always wore the full and handsome uni- 
form of his rank, and rode a magnificent dapple-gray 
charger — his old war horse "Billy." Cool, collected, abso- 
lutely impervious to excitement, he was a man of dauntless 
bravery and wonderful fortitude. A strict disciplinarian, yet 
kind of heart; never effusive nor demonstrative in affection, 
he nevertheless concerned himself more for the comfort of 
his troops than any other commander I ever knew. Belong- 


ing to his military family, I understood him thoroughly and 
know whereof I write. A soft voice and an easy flow of 
language made him an entertaining companion, and yet, his 
dignified bearing and a peculiarity, natural to him, of "car- 
rying his head high," impressed not a few with the mistaken 
idea that he was cold and exclusive. Under his quiet exte- 
rior was a vein of humor, and no man had a higher appre- 
ciation of the humorous and ludicrous than he. 
The following letter explains itself: 

Headquarters Department of West Virginia 
and East Tennessee. 

WyTHEVille, Va., February 16, 1864. 
General S. Cooper, Adjutant, Inspector-General. 

General : I respectfully recommend the promotion of Colonel 
H. L. Giltner, Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, to the rank of brigadier- 
general. Colonel Giltner has held his present rank since October 5, 
1862, and has always discharged his duty most faithfully and effi- 
ciently, both in the camp and in the field. For nearly two years of 
this time he has been in command of a brigade, and has shown him- 
self on all occasions fully equal to the position, both in the discipline 
of his men and in handling them on the field of battle. He is a rigid 
disciplinarian, always having his command well in hand, looking to 
their wants and promoting their efficiency. Since the transfer of 
Brigadier-General John S. Williams from the department Colonel 
Giltner has commanded his old brigade, of which he is still in com- 
mand. This brigade, according to last returns, shows an aggregate 
of nine hundred and eighty men, and will, I think, be materially 
increased under the management of Colonel Giltner. I ask this pro- 
motion because I think it would be an act of justice to a most deserv- 
ing and industrious officer. 

I have the honor to be, general, 

Very respectfully, etc., 

John Echoi,, 
Brigadier-General, Commanding Department. 

Promotions were often slow, and not until the closing days 
of the Confederacy was tardy justice done and Colonel Gilt- 
ner duly commissioned a brigadier-general. However, the 
flag went down at Appomattox before the commission was 
forwarded to him. 

Colonel Giltner died in the summer of 1892, at Murfrees- 
boro, Tenn., and the remains were taken to Carrollton, Ky., 


his native home, for burial. The obsequies were attended 
by about fifty of his old regiment, a number of Confederates 
of other commands, and a large concourse of citizens. His 
comrades adopted appropriate resolutions and conducted the 
funeral ceremonies. 

" Ay, speak with bated breath, 
And move with measured tread 
Among the grass-grown dwellings 
In the city of the dead. 

" Here warriors of the gallant past, 
The heroes of the land, 
The sons the sunny South sent forth, 
That gray-clad, honored band, 

" Who heard death's whispers 'mid the strife, 
And answered prompt the calls, 
Dream out an endless night of peace 
Within these voiceless walls." 

The following just tribute to the memory of Colonel 
Giltner was written by his accomplished adjutant-general : 

Hazard, Ky., August 27, 1892. 

From these mountains, where I once followed this brave officer, I 
send this tribute to his unsullied memory. 

I knew him better than most men, for I had the honor to belong 
to his military family, and I knew him under those peculiar circum- 
stances which reveal a man's true character. Henry Giltner was a 
man among men. No man ever commanded truer, braver men than 
his old regiment. They chose him because of the sterling quali- 
ties which he possessed in a rare degree. It was not because he was 
a great man ; he was not ; not because he was a learned man ; his edu- 
cation was very limited; not because he was a trained soldier; he 
knew but little of military tactics or the art of war ; but he possessed 
what was better than all these virtues — character. If I were asked 
why this humble, uneducated countryman rose to eminent distinc- 
tion among the best and bravest men I ever knew, I would say, 

I never knew Henry Giltner to do a mean thing ; I never knew him 
to speak a base word ; I never knew him to compromise the dignity 
or character of a gentleman. I saw him in many trying and difficult 
positions, and he was always the wise, cool, self-poised, courageous 
man. I never knew him flurried, and I do not remember that I ever 


saw him angry during nearly four years of war. His gentleness and 
moderation were proverbial. He lacked the brilliancy of Murat, but 
he possessed the will and firmness of the Iron Duke, which were 
better. His old Fourth Kentucky Regiment was the best corps of 
soldiers I knew during the war. This is no small praise, for they 
fought side by side with brave men from Kentucky, Virginia, Georgia, 
Tennessee and North Carolina. That regiment I have often seen 
bear the brunt of battle and turn the tide of war. They went in the 
advance toward the enemy, and in the rear on the retreat. Generals 
assigned them posts of honor and danger. That regiment is the best 
eulogy on Henry Giltner. True, it had splendid material and brave 
officers, but he was commander. To him, more than to any other 
man, it owed its morals, its character, its glory. Death never laid a 
truer man or braver soldier on the bosom of his mother State. Ken- 
tucky may be proud to number him among her honored and heroic 

Farewell, true friend, brave soldier. I shall meet you when we 
have conquered death. 

Edward O. Guerrant. 



Adjutaxt-CtExerai, Edward O. Guerr-ixi. 

" High place to thee in royal couri. 
High place in battled line.'' 

AXATIYE of Sharpsburg, Ky. , his father a talented phy- 
sician, Captain Edward O. Guerrant was a favored' son 
of the bluegrass country A bright, handsome young man, 
Chesterfieldian in manner, possessing -wondrous fluency of 
speech, a graduate of Centre College, his accomplishments 
were so many and varied that he was admired by men and 
women. Although a small man, his was a conspicuous 
figure in any assemblage. Polite as the politest Frenchman, 
gentle and refined as any lady, he was a superb cavalier, 
intrepid as Henry of Xavarre. from whose sunny France he 
had descended. He served during the war as a staff officer, 
performing the duties of adjutant-general for General Mar- 
shall, General Williams, General Cosby and Colonel Giltner. 
I was adjutant-general's clerk, and intimately associated with 
him. He was exceptionally kind to me, a delicate, slender, 
beardless boy and. of course, my recollections of him are most 
pleasant. My duties were to assist in keeping the records of 
the brigade, copy orders and letters, carry orders, etc. He kept 
a voluminous journal, which was written in attractive and 
interesting style, both as to subject-matter and chirography, 
the latter being artistically ornamental. He often required 
me to write some favorite geiu of verse or prose, which he 
desired to preserve, in the journal. He was fastidious about 
the work and watchful that I did it neatly and correctly At 
the close of the war, he had twenty or thirty, probably more, 
volumes of the journal, and a few of them have been of 
incalculable value to me in writing this book. Seemingly 
without effort. Captain Guerrant was always faultlessly, not 
to sav fastidkmslv. attired. Xo matter what the condition:? 


of the weather, he and his horse invariably appeared as if 
ready to go on dress parade or to pass inspection. 

In a parlor filled with ladies and gentlemen, the captain 
was generally the cynosure of attention and the charmingly 
fascinating monopolizer of the conversation. The more 
ladies, the better — the faster he would talk. If there was a 
mirror in the room, he was likely to walk to it, brush his 
hair and arrange his necktie, talking volubly and entertain- 
ingly all the while. Such procedure would have been 
ludicrously grotesque in any other man, but with the adju- 
tant-general it seemed to be the correct thing to do, and no 
one thought of criticising his peculiar movements ; his grace, 
his wit and vivacity charmed his auditors, who, unquestion- 
ingly, gave him carte bla?iche to do as he pleased. 

His comrades thought that when " the cruel war was over" 
he would make a magnificent lawyer; but when he laid aside 
his elegant uniform, and donned civilian garb, he chose to 
become a disciple of yEsculapius, and attended lectures in 
Philadelphia, becoming a successful physician. Soon there- 
after, however, he became impressed with the conviction 
that it was his duty to employ his gifted mind and rare 
accomplishments in preaching his Master's gospel, which 
profession he has followed with the same vigor and success 
that characterized all his former undertakings. His eloquent 
voice has been heard throughout Kentucky and in many of 
the Southern States. 

Captain Peyton Miller 

Was another gallant staff officer, an aid-de-camp, young and 
gifted. He was poetically inclined, and wrote a great deal. 
The soul of honor, it was impossible for him to be anything 
less than a gentleman. No braver soldier in gray ever drew 
a sword than Captain Peyton Miller, who was never happier 
than when, with flashing saber, he was charging the enemy. 
At Morristown (or Mossy Creek), Tenn., while fighting 
hand to hand some Federal infantry, who, with bayonets 
fixed, had formed a hollow square, his sword arm received a 
severe thrust, which disabled him, and he was compelled, 
reluctantly, to retire from the combat. 


» C 






Lieutenant-Colonel Moses Tandy Pryor. 

" Theirs was the glee of martial breast, 
And laughter theirs at little jest; 
And oft Lord Marmion deigned to aid 
And mingle in the mirth they made ; 
For though, with men of high degree, 
The proudest of the proud was he ; 
Yet, trained in camps, he knew the art 
To win the soldier's hardy heart ; 
They love a captain to obey 
Boisterous as March, yet fresh as May." 

AS we turn back the hands on time's dial thirty years, we 
behold a knightly cavalier suggestive of the romantic 
age of chivalry. No more valorous knight e'er laid lance in 
rest, or more gallantly graced castle halls, challenging the ad- 
miration of fair women and brave men — a chevalier such as 
inspired the pen of Sir Walter Scott and the minstrel's tune- 
ful lyre. 

About thirty years old, with a tall, graceful, commanding 
figure, neatly attired in the uniform of a Confederate lieu- 
tenant-colonel, a clear, strong voice, and frank expression, 
make up the engaging personality of Colonel Tandy Pryor. 

Through the instrumentality of General Wm. Nelson, early 
in August, 1861, the Federal Government introduced muni- 
tions of war into Kentucky, and distributed them to a class 
of men calling themselves " Home Guards," and, at the same 
time, secretly enlisted men into the Federal army, establish- 
ing a camp between Nicholasville and Danville known as 
" Camp Dick Robinson." 

Regarding such procedure as a violation of Kentucky's 
assumed neutrality, the Confederates occupied Columbus, 
Ky., on the Mississippi River, September 3, 1861. Both 
Confederate and Federal partisans then actively began taking 
decisive positions. 

A regiment of State Guards, under Colonel Roger Han- 
son, repaired to Camp Boone, in Northern Tennessee, and 
became a nucleus, around which gathered battalions and 


companies of the Kentucky State Guard, and individuals 
seeking service in Dixie. 

General Simon Bolivar Buckner, an accomplished man of 
affairs, a graduate of West Point, had been inspector-general 
of the State Guard, with the rank of major-general. He 
also went to Camp Boone and took command of the troops 
assembled there. At this camp the Second, Third, Fourth 
and Fifth Kentucky regiments were organized. 

It was to Camp Boone that M. T. Pryor and his two 
brothers-in-law, Henry L,. Giltner and Gideon B. Giltner, 
James G. Owen, Nathan Parker, Love Garriott, Wm. D. Ray, 
Sam P. Duncan, and others from Carroll, Trimble and Henry 
counties, repaired in September, 1861. Gid Giltner soon 
took typhoid fever and died at the residence of a relative in 
Southern Kentucky. Pryor and his associates attached them- 
selves to the famous Buckner Guards, an organization that 
attained an enviable reputation at Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862. 

Shortly after the battle of Shiloh, Colonel Pryor visited 
his home at Carroll ton, secretly remaining with his family 
four days. He again visited his home August 9, 1862, when 
he, Giltner and Parker proceeded to recruit the Fourth Ken- 
tucky Cavalry. With a part of the regiment they started 
for the Confederate lines September 9, 1862, just one month 
after Colonel Pryor's return to his home. 

Colonel Giltner having been promoted to the command of 
the brigade, Colonel Pryor commanded the Fourth Kentucky 
during much of its fighting career. 

On the battlefield Colonel Pryor was a favorite with the 
men, especially when there was a demand for quick, decisive, 
intelligent action. Intuitively he seemed to know what to 
do, and his promptitude inspired his men with a confidence 
that made his rapid movements irresistible. 

When a boy I had read much of the enticing literature of 
the age of chivalry, and had also been a fascinated reader of 
the history of Napoleon and his marshals. Colonel Pryor's 
personality and bearing as a cavalry officer reminded me of 
Murat and Dessaix, and of the cavaliers of whom the epic 
poets were wont to sing and whose chivalric deeds inspired 
the lyrics of wandering minstrels. 


Colonel Pryor was captured at Cynthiana, during Morgan's 
last raid in Kentucky, June 12, 1864, and held a prisoner on 
Johnsons Island until the close of the war. He loved the 
South, its soldiers, its banners, its battle -flags. No man 
knew better how to lead charging squadrons or to rally a 
wavering line. He was a strict disciplinarian and a most 
excellent drill officer. 

Colonel Pryor was released from prison June 18, 1865, and 
arrived home two days later. He died in Arkansas, of swamp 
fever, January- S, 1S73, after an illness of only forty-eight 
hours, aged forty years eleven months and four daj-s. 

"Blow, ye breezes, softly o'er him! 
Fan his brow with gentlest breath ; 
Disturb ye not the peaceful slumbers — 
Our chieftain sleeps the sleep of death. " 

Mrs. Barbara A. Pryor. 

A history of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry would be incom- 
plete without the name of Mrs. Barbara Pryor. This noble 
lad}-, indomitably energetic, fearless and self-sacrificing in her 
support of the lost cause, was regarded by the "boys" as 
almost one of the regiment. Being the wife of Colonel 
Pryor and sister of Colonel Giltner, she was indeed a near 
relative and an honorary member of the " Old Fourth." She 
was in the field for four years (or during the war) soliciting 
clothing, provisions and other supplies for the poor fellows 
who were confined in horrible prison pens. While other 
ladies did much, Mrs. Pryor did more. The history of strug- 
gles and hardships endured by her during those eventful 
four 3-ears can never be written. Imbued with the same 
spirit that characterized her husband and brother, she was 
persistent in her great work, and, though often faint and 
weary, she bravely kept the field, undaunted b} T winter's cold 
or summer's heat and the innumerable obstructions thrown 
in her pathway She was the general-in-chief of every relief 
corps. The "boys" long since erected monuments in their 
hearts in commemoration of her efforts in their behalf. 


When she passes away to join her husband on the eternal 
camping ground the few survivors of the old regiment will 
reverentlj- see that her grave is kept green ; beautify it 
with flowers, wreath it with laurel and crown it with immor- 

I am indebted to Mrs. Pryor for much valuable data for 
these reminiscences. She has in her possession her hus- 
band's uniform, numerous relics and papers of the war 
period. She furnished me the following list of officers of 
Giltner's brigade, who were prisoners with Colonel Pryor on 
Johnsons Island: 


M. T. Pryor, Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Ben F. Duncan, Captain, Company A. 

Sam P. Duncan, Captain, Company E. 

Nat M. Sanders, First Lieutenant, Company K. 

J. Pen Garvey, Second Lieutenant, Company C. 

R. Frank Harrison, Sergeant-Major. 

Wm. D. Ray, Major. 

J. T. Alexander, Captain, Company C. 

E. D. Whitaker, Captain, Company K. 

Lewis O'Neal, Second Lieutenant, Company F. 

Sylvester Hall, Second Lieutenant, Company I. 


E. F- Clay, Lieutenant-Colonel. 

James Hardin, Captain, Company A. 

James G. Bedford, Captain, Company D. 

J. S. Pittman, First Lieutenant, Company B. 

M. Holbrook, First Lieutenant, Company E. 

John N. Gibson, Second Lieutenant, Company B. 

H. H. Duncan, Second Lieutenant, Company A. 

James W. Jordan, Second Lieutenant, Company E. 

John B. Holliday, Major. 

B. B. Mullins, Captain, Company C. 

James White, Captain, Company F. 

R. Cummings, First Lieutenant, Company C. 

W. F. Smith, First Lieutenant, Company F. 

H. C. Clay, Second Lieutenant, Company D. 

Frank Parks, Second Lieutenant, Company H. 

Geo. A. Ronte, Second Lieutenant, Company A. 



G. W. Jackson, Captain, Company B. 
Wm, L. Flood, First Lieutenant, Company F. 
Richard Morton, First Lieutenant, Company E. 
J. M. Riffe, Second Lieutenant, Company D. 
M. W. Proctor, First Lieutenant, Company E. 
John Harris, First Lieutenant, Company D. 
M. B. Hardin, Second Lieutenant, Company E. 
Richard , Second Lieutenant, Company C. 


H. H. Stamper, Captain, Company A. 

Wm. Landram, Captain, Company G. 

TSJewton Moore, Captain and Assistant Quartermaster. 

Geo. Hogg, Captain, Company B. 

S. R. Brasher, Captain, Company H. 

, Adjutant. 

Five officers of the Sixth Confederate Battalion, whose names are 
so indistinct that they can not be read. 



Major Nathan Parker. 

" Charge them, my brave boys! " 

" Nor shall his glory be forgot 
While Fame her record keeps; 
Or Honor points the hallowed spot 
Where Valor proudly sleeps." 

OXE of the noblest duties of the living is to perpetuate the 
virtues and memories of the dead. In obedience to the 
impulse of this sacred sentiment, I now attempt to sketch a 
soldier whose attractive personality and superb martial bear- 
ing challenged the love and admiration of all men ; a chief- 
tain whose escutcheon was stainless as the robe of an angel 
in heaven ; a cavalier whose every word and deed was abso- 
lutely beyond criticism — Major Nathan Parker. I can 
employ no language eulogistic of this lovable officer that 
will not awaken a responsive echo in the heart of every man 
who served in the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry. While the 
soldiers admired the cool, brave, imperturbable Giltner, and 
enthusiastically sang paeans in praise of the dashing, indomi- 
table Pryor, they loved Parker, who, calm, kind, modest and 
courteous, readily won the unswerving fealty of all his com- 
panions in arms. 

Tall and erect, well proportioned, but not very strong, 
rather dark complexion, jet-black hair and beard, fascinating 
dark eyes, soft and kind in expression, Major Parker was not 
only an attractive personage, but he was lovable. He was 
invariably neatly attired, wearing the uniform of a Con- 
federate major. A truer patriot or knightlier soldier never 
fought nor ever died. He fought for the Confederacy, and 
for the Confederacy he died. He was the "Stonewall" of 
his regiment; yea, of the brigade. A soldier of great forti- 
tude, he never murmured at any hardship, nor hesitated to 
obey an order that would carry him into the jaws of death. 

. J 



When, amid the tempest of battle, men were falling about 
him and the lines wavering, Major Parker, cool and daunt- 
less, was the last to retire, seemingly, like Stonewall Jackson, 
to love nothing so much as the whizzing of bullets, the 
shrieking of shells, the flash and roar, the clamor and din of 
battle. He was not only a commander, but a comrade, fight- 
ing with his men. If he had a crust of bread, he shared it 
with the humblest soldier. Though dignified in bearing, no 
soldier hesitated to approach him for advice or information. 
He was just as courteous to one of the boys in the trenches 
as to any officer with stars on his collar. In foregoing chap- 
ters I have had occasion to mention this model hero, and his 
name will hereafter frequently appear. He was by nature a 
military man, and no vocation in life would have suited him 
so well as that of a professional soldier. His deeds we 
honor, his death we mourn; and yet, it seemed eminently 
fitting that this officer should die on a battlefield. His was 
an ideal soldier's death, falling, as he did, in the uniform of 
the Southern Confederacy, amid her soldiers and advancing 
flags. He died unconquered, his last words being, "Charge 
them, my brave boys." This occurred near Wytheville, Va., 
in a battle between the Confederates under General John 
H. Morgan and the Federals under General Averill, 
May 10, 1864. The ball that killed Major Parker struck him 
immediately over the heart. It being a spent bullet, it merely 
discolored the skin, the concussion causing death, which was 
instantaneous. It may be that the major had heart trouble ; I 
do not know. As he sank to the ground, he uttered the words, 
" Charge them, my brave boys," and the same words are 
inscribed on his tomb at Bedford, Ity., his home, where, 
after the war, the remains were brought from Virginia, and 
interred with imposing ceremonies. 'Tis well. 'Neath his 
parent turf his body rests, far from the gory field, where 
strange footfalls and tongues resound along the heedless air. 

"The sunshine of his native sky 
Smiles sadly on him here ; 
And kindred eyes and hearts watch by 
The hero's sepulcher." 

While I thus memorialize Major Parker, it must not be 


forgotten that thousands of humbler soldiers died just as 
valorously for the "lost cause." 
The South, God love her, has not forgotten her slain sons. 

[General Orders No. j2.] 
Headquarters First Brigade Morgan's Cavalry. 

WythEvielE, Va., May n, 1864. 

I. The remains of Major Nathan Parker, Fourth Regiment Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, will be buried by his own regiment, with military 
honors, to-day at 3 P. M. 

II. Lieutenant-Colonel M. T. Pryor, Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, will 
superintend the military ceremonies, Rev. S. F. Cameron the religious 
ceremonies, commencing at 2:30 o'clock, at the Presbyterian Church. 

These marks of respect are but outward testimonials of the rever- 
ence we owe the distinguished dead. 

No token of grief can sufficiently express our deep sorrow at the 
loss of such a man, so open in his character, so noble in his action, 
so calm and heroic in his bearing. Few men have ever equaled and 
none have ever surpassed the singular and sublime integrity of his 

To his bereaved family, in a distant State, his fall is an irreparable 
loss. His country had no purer patriot, no braver defender. The 
regiment of his constant care and affection will long feel his loss and 
mourn his fall. 

It is only in our higher faith, that " All is for the best," we can 
find consolation in our grief at this unexpected stroke from the hand 
that " doeth all things well." 

Though the grave shall hide forever from our view the noble form 
of that godlike man, his memory shall not perish from our hearts, 
nor his name be forgotten. 

Soldiers, we can best testify our high appreciation of his character 
and our lasting affection for his kindness by imitating his example 
and following his pathway, which will ever shine with the unfading 
luster of his noble deeds. 

Let his memory be our cynosure through life, and his last words, 
" Charge them, my brave boys," our rallying cry and song of victory. 

By order, 

Coeonee Gietner, 

Commanding Brigade. 

Edward O. GuERRant, A. A. G, 



The Buttermilk Ranger. 

" Comrades, leave me here a little, 
While as yet 'tis early morn ; 
Leave me here, and when you want me, 
Sound upon the bugle horn." 

TO the Confederate cavalryman, his brother, the infantry- 
man, gave the soubriquet " The Buttermilk Ranger ; " 
not that the cavalryman had any special predilection for 
buttermilk, but because the " web-foot," when out on a private 
foraging expedition, almost invariably found the cavalryman 
had been in advance of him. The fact is, the cavalryman was 
more of a ranger for cane-reed whisky and applejack than for 

The typical Confederate cavalryman was a daring, reckless, 
happy-go-lucky, sufficient -unto -the -day-is-the-evil-thereof 
sort of a fellow. If he had four days' rations in his haver- 
sack he contrived to " get away with them " in one day. He 
lived for the present, concerning himself very little about the 
future. He was, however, more provident for his horse than 
for himself, because, unlike the Federal cavalryman, he had 
to furnish his own horse, and should he become dismounted 
he must go into the infantry, the very thought of which was 
peculiarly disgusting, especially to the Kentucky and Texan 
fellows. Without any conscientious scruples whatever he 
would steal forage from his dearest comrade. 

As he had to be "the eyes and ears of the army," the 
cavalryman was, perforce, a "hustler," having little rest. 
Virtually, his home was in the saddle ; he slept in it and ate 
in it, seldom having any cooking utensils or anything in the 
line of queensware. At night, when not on the march, the 
earth was his couch, his saddle his pillow, and the sky his 
canopy. If he had any flour he mixed it with salt and cold 
water, plastered it on a board and set it before the fire to 


bake, or he would wind the dough around an iron ramrod 
and hold it over the fire. With the ramrod it was an easy 
matter to broil a piece of meat. Coffee he had none, except 
occasionally, when he captured a Federal wagon train. In 
truth, this was one of the very reasons why he was improvi- 
dent and lavish with his rations, when he had any. There 
was ever the expectancy of a dash into a Federal camp or 
train, where provisions were usually found in profusion. 
When on a raid, into Kentucky, for instance, he took no 
thought of the morrow. Kentucky was to him a land flowing 
with milk and honey, where he feasted royally. 

The Confederate cavalier was much of a free-lance — gal- 
lant to the ladies, fond of basking in 

" The light that lies 
In woman's eyes." 

When the " cruel war was over" there were few Kentucky 
boys who did not " leave a girl behind him" in Virginia or 

The cavalryman was usually ambitious to possess a good 
horse, a Mexican saddle, a pair of big spurs, with bells on 
them, a light, long-range gun, a brace of Colt's revolvers, a 
good blanket, some form of oil cloth and a canteen of brandy 
sweetened with honey. When he had these things, or some 
of them, he was a merry fellow, ready to dash into battle, 
singing " I'm so glad I'm in this army." As a rule, he was 
fond of gay attire, his style being regulation cavalry boots, 
a red sash, a large, black felt hat, of the slouch variety, with 
the brim of one side turned up and pinned to the side of the 
crown with a silver crescent or star, the whole surmounted 
by a huge, black ostrich plume. About his other clothes he 
was not very particular. The life he led enabled him to dress 
much more stylishly, if not more comfortably, than the 
infantryman. The government seldom furnished him with 
clothes or arms, and never with horses. He was expected to 
get all such things from the enemy — and, I may add, he gen- 
erally did so. He was often dressed elegantly, not to say 
gorgeously. Morgan's men undoubtedly dressed more ele- 
gantly and comfortably than any other troops, their peculiar 


service enabling them to do so. Terry's Texas Rangers wore 
good clothes, were unrivaled equestrians, and dashed hither 
and thither with a jaunty, devil-may-care, reckless abandon, 
suggestive of the " wild and woolly west." The cavalry in 
the Valley of Virginia operated extensively within the Fed- 
eral lines, and I remember that the commands of Mosby, 
General Lomax, General Rosser, General Bradley T. John- 
son and others were often gaily attired, the black plume 
being conspicuously numerous. It was not unusual to see a 
private soldier better dressed than even his general. Many 
officers were notably plain in dress, some wearing no insignia 
of rank whatever. 

The cavalryman enjoyed nothing more than a long raid 
into the enemy's country, especially in late spring, summer 
or early fall. The raid, of course, involved much hard 
marching, loss of sleep, and often a great deal of fighting, 
in a lively dashing way; but for all this the trooper was 
compensated by " square meals " and the rich supplies of 
clothing and provisions captured from the surprised enemy. 
The Kentuckian always had a longing eye for the bluegrass 
region, and was never so happy as when marching in that 
direction. On those wild rides he had a " high old time," 
and enjoyed the constantly varying scenery. Summed up, 
however, although there was much that was pleasant and 
alluring in his life, the cavalier generally had " a hard, hard 
road to travel." 



East Tennessee Campaign — Events of 1863 — Telford's — Lime- 
stone — Capture of the One Hundredth Ohio Infantry 

" Hark ! hark ! comrades, a Federal drum ! 
And see ! invading squadrons come ! " 

THE most important events of the war, during the 
autumn of 1863, occurred in East Tennessee and 
Georgia — the battle of Chickamauga, the siege of Chatta- 
nooga, the decisive battle of Missionary Ridge, and Long- 
street's desperate assault upon Fort Sanders, at Knoxville. 
From Chattanooga to the Virginia line was one vast battle- 
field, the fighting being fierce and continuous. 

East Tennessee, noted for its adherence to the Union, is 
said to have had thirty -one thousand men in the Federal 
army, besides innumerable relentlessly cruel bushwhackers 
who infested the mountains. 

Here was the home of Andrew Johnson, afterward Presi- 
dent of the United States ; of Horace Maynard, Parson 
Brownlow and Thomas A. R. Nelson, prominent Union 
leaders. Nelson was a noted lawyer, judge, orator and 
statesman, not of the venomous temperament that character- 
ized the others, and was of counsel for Johnson in the 
celebrated impeachment trial. Nelson had a commodious 
residence, some distance east of Knoxville, which I frequently 
visited, and where I became acquainted with Mrs. Nelson and 
family, excepting, of course, her husband, who was never at 
home when we were in that vicinity. Mrs. Nelson was a 
plain, sensible, refined lady, whom I hold in grateful remem- 
brance for liberal hospitality and gentle, considerate kind- 
ness shown me. 

It was in this country that the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry 
made much of its fighting record. 


When Burnside occupied Knoxville he sent the One Hun- 
dredth Ohio Infantry Regiment on a reconnoissance, bv rail, 
up the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad. 

Colonel Giltner, with the Fourth Kentucky and School- 
field's little battery, was temporarily attached to the command 
of General Jackson, whom the boys facetiously called " Mud- 
wall" Jackson in contradistinction to the immortal "Stone- 

The Fourth Kentucky and the little battery met the Ohio 
regiment at Telfords (a small station just below Jonesboro 
and probably seventy miles east of Knoxville), September 
9, 1S63. A brief but spirited engagement immediately 
ensued, the enenn* falling back to Limestone Depot, the next 
station below, there being a block-house fortification at that 

In the fight at Telfords, Joe Johnson, of Trimble County, 
Ky. . was killed ; Amos Frost was severely wounded in the 
head, and James Xorth, bugler, was struck in the abdomen 
\>y a spent ball, which did not penetrate the skin, but the 
shock doubled him up as though he had a bad case of colic. 
There were others placed hors de combat whose names I can 
not recall. Captain Schoolfield's little batten,- here, as on 
many other fields, did gallant and valuable service. 

After some delay. General " Mudwall " being rather slow 
and wavering, we followed the enemj- to Limestone, being 
now reinforced by one or two small detachments of troops 
and Lowry's battery The Federals were driven into the 
woods in front of the block-house and around it, and when 
we reached a plateau overlooking their position, General 
"Mudwall," hesitatingly, began to make preparations to 
attack them in front. Captain Bart W Jenkins, formerry 
aid-de-camp to General Marshall, now a free lance voluntarily 
doing staff duty, at this supreme moment dashed up to the 
general and, in his rapid, impulsive manner, gesticulating vig- 
orously the while, suggested that the artillery, with a small 
support, should engage the attention of the enemy in front, 
while the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, under cover of a wood- 
land to the right, should march to their rear. I was much 
impressed hy Captain Jenkins' manner as he unfolded his 


plan, which was born of the inspiration of the moment, and 
I was somewhat amused at the readiness with which the gen- 
eral nodded assent to the captain's propositions. It was an 
instance of a slow, inferior, vacillating mind being overshad- 
owed and controlled by one inspired by the genius of war. 

Captain Jenkins accompanied the regiment to the enemy's 
rear, where a hot, close fight occurred, the enemy fighting des- 
perately to break through our line to escape. This they were 
unable to do; instead, they were driven and closely pressed 
until many of them sought refuge in the block-house. After 
a well-directed shot or two from L,owry's battery, the enemy 
hoisted the white flag and surrendered unconditionally. 

The One Hundredth Ohio Infantry was a fine regiment 
of brave men, whom the fortune of war permitted to be 
entrapped and overcome; the result of being caught too far 
from their base. 

The Fourth Kentucky boys appropriated to their own use 
and benefit the new Enfield rifles with which the Federals 
were armed, and abandoned forever the short muskets, shot- 
guns and other nondescript arms they had heretofore carried. 
The Enfield rifle, being a light, long-range gun, was a favorite 

There were a number of killed and wounded, but I can 
recall only the names of Albert Smith, a model Christian 
young man, of Trimble County, Ky., killed; Oscar Coleman, 
of the same county, severely wounded, and Wm. Bohon, an 
accomplished young man from Harrodsburg, Ky., wounded. 

This was the initial fight to what was to be a long campaign 
of almost daily battle, until the lifting of the siege of Knox- 
ville, and even then the Fourth Kentucky Regiment pro- 
tected the rear of L,ongstreet's corps as it retired into Virginia. 



East Tennessee; Campaign (Continued) — Battle oe 
Bi/ue Springs. 

" Their warning blast the bugles blew, 

The pipe's shrill port aroused each clan ; 
In haste, the deadly strife to view, 
The trooping warriors eager ran." 

GENERAL BURNSIDE, fresh from the Army of the 
Potomac, which he had commanded at the great bat- 
tle of Fredericksburg, took possession of Knoxville early 
in the autumn of 1863. 

By command of Major - General Ransom, General Cerro 
Gordo Williams had made a forced march toward Knoxville, 
until he arrived at Blue Springs, in Greene County, Tenn., 
about seven and one-half miles from Greenville, and seven or 
eight miles from Bulls Gap. Here we halted and sat down, 
apparently waiting, Micawber-like, for something to turn up. 
This was bad strategy, as the sequel proved. In the course 
of a week the Federals " turned up," not only in our front, 
but also behind us. The interim had been quiet and peace- 
ful, the monotony only being broken by a predatory band of 
the enemy, who captured a part of our wagon train. This 
episode, in connection with the unnatural calm, was ominous. 
We could only surmise ; we did not know the fact that we 
were in an exceedingly dangerous predicament — liable to be 
crushed between the upper and nether millstones, as it were. 
Occupying a ridge stretching across the valley from either 
side of the road, in the center, our position, however, was 
naturally a strong one. The lower lands in our immediate 
front consisted of open fields and dense woodland. 

Burnside was in command of the Ninth Army Corps, and 
had probably twenty thousand men in and about Knoxville. 
Opposed to these, General John S. Williams, whom we gen- 
erally called " Old Cerro Gordo," had, at Blue Springs, only 


two small brigades of cavalry, commanded, respectively, by 
Colonels Giltner and Carter, and sections of three batteries 
of artillery. Giltner's brigade consisted of the Fourth Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, Tenth Kentucky Cavalry Battalion and Tenth 
Kentucky Mounted Rifle Battalion — about nine hundred 
men. Carter's brigade was composed of the First Tennes- 
see, Sixteenth Georgia and Peter's Regiment, numbering 
probably eight hundred men. 

It will be readily seen that General Williams had an 
absurdly small force with which to attempt to fight or bluff 
the hero (?) of Fredericksburg and the Ninth Corps d'Armee. 
We were fully seventy-five miles from our base, with no sup- 
porting force near. 

On Saturday, October 10, 1863, probably between 9 and 10 
A. m., the enemy attacked us. Old Cerro Gordo was now in 
his element. His reputation for pugnacity and as a "stayer" 
extended from Maine to the City of Mexico, and at the first 
picket shot it became apparent that he meant to fight, and 
that he would not abandon his position without a desperate 
conflict. Such were his tactics ever. He never ran away so 
long as he could get a man to stand. He went into a fight 
storming and swearing; stormed and swore during the bat- 
tle, and after the fight he swore all the same, in victory or 
defeat. The general's disposition of the troops for ba*ttle 
was soon effected. Colonel Carter occupied the ridge on the 
right and Colonel Giltner the one on the left. A section of 
Burrow's battery, commanded by Lieutenant Lloyd, a notably 
gallant boy, occupied a commanding position on the right of 
the road; two Parrot guns were on the left, and Captain 
Schoolfield's unique little battery of flying artillery was also 
advantageously posted, but could change position at a 
moment's warning. General Williams and staff took posi- 
tion near Lloyd's guns. 

Within a very short time after the first picket firing the 
battle opened fiercely all along the lines. The artillery 
began a duel, which was kept up nearly all day. Occasion- 
ally, however, the guns of both sides would shell the woods. 
Shells from the enemy's guns would strike in front of our 
batteries and ricochet over them and above our heads, gener- 


ally exploding in our rear. One of Lloyd's guns was struck 
and the lieutenant was painfully wounded in the arm. He 
bandaged it with a handkerchief and continued to fight his 

About ii o'clock I was sent with a message to General 
Williams, and on my way thither I saw a strange flag and a 
motley troop of reckless riders — the most dare-devil looking 
ragamuffins I had ever seen. Many of them were barefooted, 
but, nevertheless, they wore spurs. As far as I could see up 
the road they were coming at a gallop, one by one, and as 
each trooper came to the ordnance wagons he would come to 
a sudden halt and demand some ammunition. Although it 
was an irregular thing to do, in the absence of a regulation 
requisition, James G. Owen, the ordnance sergeant, handed 
out the cartridges, which most of the men put into their pock- 
ets, as they had no cartridge boxes. One by one, as soon as 
the ammunition was received, they would give a yell, and, 
not waiting to close up, would gallop headlong down the 
road, leading to the center of our lines, until they struck the 
enemy, and by the firing I could almost tell when each of 
them "got there." I soon learned that they were about one 
hundred and twenty-five in number, and commanded by the 
noted Colonel Witcher. Their battle-flag was in a dilapidated 
condition, bearing many honorable scars. They were fresh 
from the battlefields of Maryland and Pennsylvania, where 
it was said they had been conspicuous as fighters and "cherry 
pickers," climbing the trees and nonchalantly eating the fruit 
while the storm of battle raged around them. 

When Colonel Witcher arrived he dashed up to General 
Williams and demanded to know if he could have a place 
" in the dance " then going on. The bluff old general said, 
' ' Certainly, sir, go right in ; " and he did "go in " with a vim. 
When his men, one by one, struck the enemy they fought 
like Spartans until they all got in line, and then with a mighty 
yell they charged and actually drove the mass of Federals 
in their immediate front some distance before overwhelming 
numbers checked them. 

Witcher's men composed the Thirty-fourth Virginia Bat- 
talion of Cavalry. Having often heard of their " original 


methods " and invincible fighting qualities, our boys heartily 
welcomed their coming, and throughout the East Tennessee 
campaign " Witcher's men " were favorites of the entire 
division. They were good fellows to have around when we 
were in a " predicament." 

Opportunely there came another Richmond to the field. 
Captain Bart Jenkins, with a small detachment, was at Rhea- 
town, eighteen miles distant, and, hearing the cannonading, 
hastened to Blue Springs, arriving in the afternoon. 

General Burnside was on the field in person, commanding 
fully six thousand troops, cavalry and infantry, with a full 
complement of artillery, with large reserves at hand. Just 
think ! The great Burnside, the man of sidewhiskers, ex-Com- 
mander of the Grand Army of the Potomac, with the force 
above enumerated, fighting Cerro Gordo and his seventeen 
hundred men all day and failing to drive them ! Had the 
conditions been reversed, the chieftain of Fredericksburg 
would have been making quadruple-quick-time toward Knox- 
ville within an hour. 

As the battle progressed Burnside's forces appeared to aug- 
ment, and we began to suspect that the greater part of the 
Ninth Corps d'Armee was in our front. In fact, one of his 
adjutant-generals, whom we afterward captured, said he had 
fifteen thousand men on the field before night. To confront 
this host General Williams was compelled to string out his 
men until his little army was a mere skirmish line, nearly 
two miles long. The dense masses of Federal blue, failing 
to drive the thin line of Confederate gray, made several 
attempts to turn our flanks, but each effort was an inglorious 
failure. Thus the battle raged, the enemy utterly failing to 
drive grim Old Cerro Gordo and his Spartan band. 

About 5 o'clock p. m. Burnside, in desperation, resolved 
upon a grand coup de main. Massing his infantry and artillery 
he made a furious attack on our center. And what constituted 
that center? Not more than one hundred and fifty men, com- 
manded by Lieutenant-Colonel Ed Trimble, of the Tenth 
Kentucky Cavalry. Our line being somewhat convex, Trim- 
ble occupied the woods in the center, probably two hundred 
yards in advance and to the right of Giltner's and other 


battalions. Upon this little band the enemy concentrated a 
deadly fire of musketry, supplemented by a hail-storm of 
canister from short range. Trimble was forced to fall back 
slowly by the right flank upon the remainder of Giltner's 
brigade. These movements broke our line — separating Gilt- 
ner from Carter — but both flanks held their positions intact. 
The enemy, elated by his success in driving Trimble's hand- 
ful of heroes, now treated us to a spectacular exhibition 
magnificent to behold. The great host debouching from the 
woods into the open fields, lines dressed in close array, drums 
rattling and bugles braying, a sea of bayonets, shining guns 
and gleaming sabers, challenged our admiration. With bated 
breath every man involuntarily exclaimed: "Splendid! Mag- 
nificent!" It now seemed that we would certainly be 
overwhelmed. Not so. When the imposing array moved 
forward our artillery thundered and small arms rattled. The 
firing was phenomenally rapid, the booming of artillery one 
continuous sound. The enemy went down in heaps; the 
beautiful dress parade was broken. The shells from our 
artillery, so rapidly falling and exploding in the midst of the 
mass of blue, created consternation and panic. Lifeless 
bodies strewn upon the plain and the groans of the wounded 
changed our exclamation of admiration to one of pity. The 
Grand Corps d'Armee, doubtless thinking that "h — 11 had 
broken loose in Tennessee," incontinently turned and inglo- 
riously fled toward a refuge in the woodland. A few brief 
moments had wrought a wondrous change — from a pompous, 
splendid advance to an inglorious, even comical, stampede. 
I felt deeply sorrowful for the poor fellows left mangled and 
groaning, deserted by their comrades in the open field, and 
at this distance (thirty years) am moved to exclaim: "Bella! 
bclla! horrida bella!" 

It was now nearly night, and the enemy made no more 
imposing demonstrations. The fight continued, however, 
until dark, without any material change in the relative posi- 
tions of the combatants other than that the enemy, by reason 
of their superiority of numbers, were slowly, but surely, out- 
flanking us and gaining our rear. 

When night dropped her sable curtain down the firing 


ceased, our troops retaining their position, not daring, how- 
ever, to build fires. We had lost probably one hundred men, 
while the enemy's loss must have been very great. Many of 
their killed and wounded fell into our hands. Neither men 
nor horses had had anything to eat since the early morning, 
and, as the sequel proved, we were destined to make a long 
march and fight three battles on the morrow (Sunday) before 
we should have an opportunity to break our fast or rest our 
weary bodies. 

General Cerro Gordo Williams and his little division of 
cavalry and artillery, had they never engaged in any other 
conflict, could rest their fame upon the issue of that day 
(Saturday, October 10, 1863), 'and be content with the laurels 
won at Blue Springs. 

At nightfall General Williams went to Greenville to com- 
municate by telegraph with General Wm. H. Jones or General 

Lying in line of battle it soon became evident that the 
enemy was not idle. They were gradually investing our 
position — digging rifle-pits within speaking distance of our 
front and swinging around our flanks. We marveled that 
General Williams should leave us in that precarious position. 
But Old Cerro Gordo never did learn when or how to retreat. 
Conscious of the vast numbers of the enemy, and of our own 
disparity of force, every man felt that captivity would be his 
fate should the troops remain there all night. The lines were 
so close that the combatants could distinctly hear one another 
when talking in an ordinary tone. 

Colonel Giltner, the senior officer in command during the 
absence of General Williams, resolved that, orders or no 
orders, he would not needlessly sacrifice his men. He sent 
for Colonel Carter, and, being present, I heard them, in low 
tones, discuss the situation. Colonel Giltner did most of 
the talking, pointing out the undeniable fact that by morn- 
ing our position would be environed by the enemy, and that 
a stampede or capture would be inevitable. He finally arose 
to his feet and said: "Colonel Carter, you may do as you 
please, but there is no commandant in this army who can 
compel me to sacrifice my men by uselessly holding them 


here all night. They may court-martial me, but I care not. 
I am going to take my men out of this trap." Carter was 
passive, and quietly assented to all that Gilter said, agreeing, 
also, to take the responsibility of withdrawing his brigade. 
Frank Darling and I, and probably some one else, were sent 
to inform the several subordinate commanders of the con- 
templated movement. The men were cautioned to make no 
noise, and, like the Arab, we had soon folded our tents and 
silently stolen away. 



East Tennessee Campaign (Continued) — Battle of Henderson's 


" And still three cheers for the boys in gray! 
For, whether they lived or whether they died, 
The South by their valor is glorified." 

FROM Blue Springs we moved slowly and quietly on to 
Greenville, where we found General Williams, who 
appeared somewhat displeased at the movement; but he 
knew Giltner, and when that imperturbably cool officer 
boldly told him why he had withdrawn the troops from Blue 
Springs, the general seemingly became reconciled to the 
situation. He ordered us to continue the retrograde move- 
ment until we should reach Henderson's Mill, several miles 
east of Greenville, and there to go into camp. Alas! we 
were to march all night and fight another battle at daylight, 
before reaching that camp. Without knowing it, we were 
still in a trap. Before General Williams had finished tele- 
graphing from Greenville the wires had been cut — a sus- 
picious circumstance. It apparently had not occurred to any 
one that while we were fighting at Blue Springs a large force 
of the enemy had taken another road and gone to our rear. 
The Yankee is an inventive genius and knows how to invent 
and manufacture traps and many other things ; but some of 
his traps are defective and do not always hold the animal 
that unwittingly walks into them, and this trap did not prove 
strong enough to hold Old Cerro Gordo and his weary, but 
dauntless, cavaliers. 

We moved toward Henderson's in the following order: 
General Jackson, with about five hundred infantry, having 
come up and joined the division, now marched in advance ; 
Carter followed Jackson, and Giltner's brigade protected the 
rear. Thus we marched all night, momentarily expecting 
Burnside's cavalry to dash into Giltner's column. 


At dawn, Sunday, October nth, an unseen foe fired upon 
Jackson. As the enemy was concealed behind trees in the 
dense woodland that bordered the road, it was at first 
thought that no more formidable foe than a band of bush- 
whackers was in our front. We were then about two miles 
from Henderson's. Jackson advanced to drive the supposed 
bushwhackers from the wood, and immediately received a 
furious volley from the unseen enemy. . Temporarily there 
was some confusion, the darkness of the early morning and 
the shelter of the woodland interposing a somber veil 
between our troops and the foe. There was no longer doubt 
that a Federal force was intercepting our retreat, and the 
dullest mind realized that we were in a" critical predica- 
ment." The overwhelming host we had fought at Blue 
Springs was in our rear, and here were blue-coats, we knew 
not how many, in our front. Horrible visions of a captive's 
life in a gloomy Northern prison loomed before us, making 
the prospective dark and depressing. However, our boys 
opened fire in gallant style, and the artillery galloped up, 
rapidly unlimbered, and began shelling the woods. 

Old Cerro Gordo came promptly to the fore, storming and 
swearing, and ordered Jackson and Carter to charge. This 
they did impetuously, driving the enemy persistently. Cerro 
Gordo, like a veritable god of war, waved his sword on high 
as he led the van, cheering the boys, storming and raging. 
He swore at the Federals and at the Confederates " in one 
time and two motions." Adjutant-Generals E. O. Guerrant 
and H. T Stanton and Capt. Bart. Jenkins were con- 
spicuously valiant, cheering the troops and assisting the 
general in many ways. The enemy tried to use their artil- 
lery, but after firing a few rounds they were pressed so hotly 
and driven so rapidly that their guns " were kept on the 
jump," not having time to turn and unlimber. The somber 
clouds of despair now showed a silver lining, and visions of 
prison life rapidly vanished. 

The enemy had fought quite stubbornly for a brief time, 
but being unable to withstand the impetuous onset of the 
boys in gray, they broke and wildly fled. They had no time 
to carry off their dead and wounded, but with the cry of 


" sauve qui petit" they stampeded and skedaddled, apparently 
making no effort to rally. They ran about three miles, our 
boys "whooping 'em up," until, turning to the left, they 
forsook the main road and went toward Kingsport, still exe- 
cuting the quintuple quickstep. The fight was over by 8 
o'clock, the losses being inconsiderable on both sides, 
especially when we consider the closeness of the range and 
the amount of ammunition expended. For the most, part, 
however, it was a running fight, the conditions not being 
favorable for accurate aim. We captured ten or fifteen 
prisoners, some of them belonging to the Fifth Indiana 

The engagement at Hendersons Mill was a brilliant affair 
on the part of the Confederates, but must have been 
extremely humiliating to the Federals. Their force, com- 
manded by Colonel Foster, consisted of four regiments, 
aggregating at least twenty-five hundred men — nearly double 
our number. Besides, they knew that Burnside, with the 
greater part of the Ninth Army Corps, was in our rear, and 
that fact should have inspired them to make a better fight. 
However, General "Williams' promptness in ordering a charge, 
and the dash, desperation and impetuosity of his men, 
demoralized the Federals at the start, causing the close 
proximity of Burnside to count for nothing. 

The road being cleared, we emerged from the trap and 
moved on toward Rheatown, where we expected to go into 
camp, obtain food for ourselves and horses and enjoy a much 
needed rest. 

A prominent and noticeable officer among the Federals 
that morning was Colonel McKee Dunn. He commanded, I 
think, the Fifth Indiana Cavalry. Throughout the campaign, 
and during Longstreet's investment of Knoxville, McKee 
Dunn and his gray horse were familiar figures. He was as 
brave as Marshal Ney, and challenged the admiration of our 
boys when, for nearly a month, he would almost daily coolly 
and intrepidly ride up and down his line, in easy range of 
our Enfields. By common consent the boys agreed that so 
gallant an officer ought not to be killed. 

A ludicrous incident occurred during the fight. Captain 


Jake Yeager, commissary of the Fourth Kentucky, encount- 
ered a Dutchman and ordered him to surrender. The 
Teuton could not see it in that light and exclaimed : '' Py 
dam, you surrender your ownself ! " They argued, threatened 
and "demonstrated" until Yeager, out-bluffing him, finally 
"took the Dutchman in." 


East Tennessee Campaign (Continued) — Battee of Rheatown — 

VIEW — Reorganization*. 

" Sons of the South ! There's a victory sweet, 
That comes to the brave in the ranks of defeat." 

HAVING had neither food nor rest since the commence- 
ment of the engagement at Blue Springs, men and 
horses were hungry and wear}' when the}- arrived at Rhea- 
town about 10 o'clock a. m. 

Instead of a calm and restful observance of Sunday, the 
tranquillity of which had been broken by the clash of arms 
at Hendersons Mill, we were destined to pass the entire day 
amid the smoke of a conflict — the most desperate, the most 
horrible day we had yet spent in the war. There is a limit 
to human endurance, and our little band had, apparently 
reached that limit, when the booming of cannon, the hurt- 
ling of bombs and solid balls, suggested an olio or overture 
before the rising curtain, revealing another scene in the 
theater of war ; another act in a realistic play to be per- 
formed on that fateful Sunday. 

A strange scene in war ! Troops going into camp, wagons 
parked and horses being unbridled and fed, while the enemy s 
cannon were roaring and sending shrieking shells over our 
heads, and solid balls ricocheting through the encampment. 
When we arrived at Rheatown, the enemy, moving on our 
left flank, had taken possession of a gap in the ridge oppo- 
site the town, and a dense woodland, extending from the 
base of the ridge to our position, effectually hid them from 
view. Under cover of their artillery in the gap, and sheltered 
by the woods, they were moving upon us all the time we 
were going into camp. Carter's whole brigade, not yet 
having gone into camp, were on their horses in the road, 
when the enemy suddenly fired upon them from the margin 
of the woods. 


General Williams was storming about the erection of his 
tent, while the cannon balls were flying over his head, and 
when the Federals came swarming through the woods. The 
going into camp under such circumstances was inexplicable — - 
beyond our comprehension. Being at the general's head- 
quarters while the tent was going up, and wondering what it 
all meant, I heard a cavalryman inquire of a comrade: 
" What in h — 11 does all this mean — going into camp in the 
presence of the enemy?" The other fellow nonchalantly 
replied, " Strategy, my boy, strategy! " To which number 
one rejoined, " Strategy, h — 11 ! " 

Viewing the surroundings with an untrained military eye, 
I unreservedly indorsed the cavalryman's emphatic expres- 
sion, it being evident that instead of resorting to a ruse de 
guerre, the general was playing a game of bluff and bravado. 
To even a mediocre mind it was a situation in which discre- 
tion would seem to be the better part of valor. We ought 
to have moved on as rapidly as possible, consistent with order 
and dignity. We were forced to move at a double-quick- 
step, later in the day. 

It is difficult to write a description of this battle of Rhea- 
town. It had no shape. It was a tempest — a hurly-burly. 
In the language of Victor Hugo, it was the " quid obscurzim 
of battles. Where infantry was, artillery arrives ; where 
artillery was, cavalry dash in ; the battalions are smoke. 
There was something there, but when j f ou look for it, it has 
disappeared. To paint a battle, those painters who have 
chaos in their pencils are needed. Rembrandt is worth more 
than Van der Meulen; for Van der Meulen, exact at midday, 
is incorrect at 3 o'clock. Geometry is deceived, and the hur- 
ricane alone is true, and it is this that gives Folard the right 
to contradict Polybius. It is not given to any narrator, how- 
ever conscientious he may be, to absolutely fix the form of 
that horrible cloud which is called a battle." While this is 
true of all battles, it is particularly applicable to Rheatown. 
There was no plan, but much of folly, confusion and despera- 
tion ; courage of the highest type and panic indescribable ; 
a continuous roar ; fire and smoke everywhere ; groans, death, 
physical exhaustion, despair. It seemed that we were in 


the tartarean region, and that there was no escape. All 
wished for night, but the day seemed interminable. 

There was much confusion before the battle began, while 
we were going into camp. Some of the men even refused to 
dismount, while others ventured into the adjacent fields to 
procure corn for their horses. Before many of them returned, 
bullets began to whiz through the camp ; the men dropped 
their corn and quickly mounted their horses. The Federal 
artillery, having gotten the exact range, threw shot and 
shell into the disordered ranks, while masses of blue-coats 
debouched from the woods, and the whole visible earth 
seemed suddenly to assume a cerulean hue. Rifle balls came 
thick and fast. A part of Carter's brigade became panic 
stricken and dashed wildly to the rear. Adjutant-General 
Guerrant, not having time to saddle his horse, mounted him, 
bareback, and dashed after the stampeded Georgians and 
Tennesseans, overtook them, and eloquently appealed to 
them to return. In connection with Colonel Carter and 
other officers, he succeeded in stopping and dismounting two 
or three hundred of them, whom he led back in an endeavor 
to check the enemy until the remainder of the troops could 
be placed in position, and the wagons be gotten out of the 

\V H. Bradley and John James McCann, of the Fourth 
Kentucky, in charge of the wagon train, used excellent 
judgment and did heroic service in extricating the wagons 
from imminent capture. 

Notwithstanding the reign of pandemonium and the 
seriousness of the situation, there were laughable scenes, 
even here. Captain Yeager's commissary wagon, driven by 
Tom Hopkins, came to grief just as Tom was flourishing his 
whip and giving the admonitory " Git up ! " to his mules. 
A cannon ball, striking the coupling pole of the wagon, cut it 
in twain, but Tom hurriedly drove on with the front wheels 
and a part of the wagon bed, losing however Captain Yeager's 
sevent3 T -five dollar boots and other valuable paraphernalia. 

At the beginning of the fight, a young woman, with the 
curiosity of her sex, visited the wagon rendezvous, and being 
unused to war's alarms, sat down beside Will Bradley, who 


chivalrously exerted himself to entertain her. The tete-a- 
tete was rudely dissolved by a bomb-shell that struck in close 
proximity to the trysting place, and caused a wild and undig- 
nified stampede on the part of the fair one, leaving Bradley, 
like the last rose of summer, to bloom alone. 

Giltner's brigade was quickly in position on the left, as 
was Schoolfield's battery of four little guns. Graham's and 
Lloyd's sections of artillery had gone down to the railroad, 
nearly a mile away, with General Jackson, and had not yet 
arrived on the field. The fighting became hot and furious. 
Carter being forced back on the right, and a flanking column 
of the enemy appearing on Giltner's left, made it necessary 
to fall back to a more advantageous position. A number of 
men, dispirited, straggled to the rear. 

We now had not more than eight hundred to one thousand 
men with which to fight General Shackelford's division of 
cavalry, a brigade of infantry and twenty pieces of artillery. 

After severe fighting our somewhat disordered lines again 
fell back to a better position, a commanding eminence known 
as Pughs Hill, about two and a half miles from Rheatown. 
This position commanded all approaches on the center, but 
it could be easily flanked by an enemy with superior numbers. 
Our men, being dismounted, had withdrawn from their former 
position to this, sullenly and in good order. At Pughs Hill 
was fought the main fight of the day. It was the third 
engagement — long, desperate and wearisome. 

When the enemy again approached, our artillery, being 
admirably handled, gave them a warm reception. The enemy 
also served theirs well, one of their shells killing and wound- 
ing several artillerists and horses. The Federal infantry and 
cavalry recoiled, temporarily, before the well-directed fire of 
Graham's, Lloyd's and Schoolfield's guns. 

Unfortunately, at this critical moment, it became necessary 
to change commanders. With Colonel Giltner and staff I 
rode to where General Williams had taken position near a 
section of artillery. The general was reclining on the 
ground, apparently quite sick, but swearing awfully. He 
held his unsheathed sword in his hand, was mad as a hornet, 
and although hors de combat, was as bellicose as ever. 


Colonel Giltner assumed command, temporarily, and when 
he saw the whole division was in imminent danger of being 
overwhelmed and captured, he made heroic efforts to with- 
draw the men from the field. He ordered the horseholders 
to remain where they were until the men could get to them. 
This was a necessary precaution, because many of the men 
were stampeding and there was danger of the horseholders 
becoming infected with the panic and being swept to the 
rear by retreating horsemen. 

The First Tennessee and the Sixteenth Georgia, of Car- 
ter's brigade men naturally brave but lacking in discipline, 
had been somewhat demoralized since the first guns were fired 
at Rheatown. They finally broke and stampeded. Would 
that I could drop the curtain and shut out the whole horri- 
ble, indescribable scene ! They went like a hurricane, through 
fields and over fences, carrying everything before them. 
Their horse-holders ran away, and horses riderless and riders 
horseless ran headlong through Giltner's column of horses, 
stampeding many of them. Giltner's men hurriedly threw 
down the rail fences on either side of the road, in order to 
get into the adjacent fields and thus escape the awful mael- 
strom of destruction. General Williams now appeared among 
the panic-stricken men, and, with his sword striking right 
and left at them, stormed and swore in vain. Other officers 
with waving hats and swords valiantly supplemented the 
general's efforts, but all were powerless to check that awful 
torrent of human fear. Brave men they were; but when 
once stampeded men lose all reason — the lions become kids. 

The Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, being on the extreme right 
and farthest from the horses, seemed doomed to capture. 
They were fighting overwhelming numbers in their front and 
on their flanks, while battalions were rushing to the rear and 
running off their horses. That heroic regiment, Major Tom 
Chenoweth's Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles, Colonel Trim- 
ble's Tenth Kentucky Cavalry and Witcher's battalion 
steadfastly remained firm, and even when sullenly and 
obstinately retiring, they would occasionally charge the 
enemy. Captain Schoolfield and his twenty-five gallant 
young men, with the little battery, galloped from position to 


position, wheeling their guns and often checking the enemy. 
Witcher, brave, immortal Witcher, calling to his men, 
" Fall in here, nighthawks ! " formed them in the open field 
to the right of the road, and charged the enemy, pell-mell, 
checking them until the Kentucky boys could reach their 
horses. All hats off! All honor and never-fading laurels to 
gallant Colonel Witcher and his invincible " nighthawks." 

Our loss was severe. The Fourth Kentucky alone lost 
forty or fifty men, killed, wounded and missing. Of the 
missing, Captains Ray and Gathright afterward joined the 
command, having walked sixteen miles. A number of miss- 
ing men also turned up all right — somewhat disfigured, but 
still in the ring. Captain Sam Duncan and Dick Strother 
were among the captured, and Pete Malloy was left on the 
field, supposed to be dead. These three belonged to Com- 
pany E, Fourth Kentucky Cavalry. A splendid soldier, an 
athlete, had his head torn off by a cannon ball. He belonged, 
I think, to Captain Alexander's company. He was noted 
for amiability and for his singing. Possessing a deep bass 
voice, he was wont to arouse the Fourth Kentucky boys by 
singing, "Awake, awake, ye drowsy sleeper," in the early 
morn before Tom Hayden sounded reveille with his bugle. 

In the closing scenes of the fight I noticed Buck Lacefield, 
of Captain Barrett's company, Fourth Kentucky, fall in line 
with Witcher's men, his mouth wide open, jelling and charg- 
ing the enemy Buck was one of the bravest of the brave, 
and among the last to leave the ill-fated field. 

The enemy's loss must have been great. A prisoner 
stated that they lost sixty men at Hendersons Mill. As our 
men fired deliberately and at close range, their losses must 
have been proportionately much greater at Rheatown and 
Pughs Hill. 

We had fought four engagements without food, rest or 
sleep, and still we were compelled to march. The retreat 
continued to Jonesboro, thence across the rapid Watauga 
River and on to Blountville, the enemy following slowly and 

There was an inconsequential engagement at Blountville, 
General Wm. E. Jones being in command of the cavalry 


In this fight Adjutant T. M. Freeman was shot in the neck, 
but not seriously. He tied his handkerchief about the wound 
and continued to gallop up and down the line of the Fourth 
Kentucky, cheering and leading the men into the most dan- 
gerous places. As usual, the enemy flanked the position, 
compelling General Williams to concentrate his entire force at 
Zollicoffer, whence he continued the retreat to Abingdon, Va. 

The Federals destroyed the long railroad bridge, two or 
three locomotives, a number of cars and the old pine log fort 
at Zollicoffer. The locomotives were worthless, and the fort 
was such only in name. The bridge, however, was a valuable 

We arrived at Abingdon about October 16th, and General 
Williams, having received reinforcements, determined to 
fight another battle. The position was an admirable one. 
The batteries of Burrows, Lowry, Otey and Lewis were 
posted on four high hills, commanding all approaches in front. 

It was known that the Federal cavalry, under Shackelford, 
consisting of Wolford's, Carter's, Foster's and Wells' brigades 
and twenty-five pieces of artillery, was approaching, and 
that a strong force of infantry was in supporting distance. 
Witcher and his " nighthawks," bringing up our rear, fought 
them almost continuously. We had five or six thousand 
men at Abingdon, and were prepared to give the enemy a 
warm reception, but when within six miles of our position 
they suddenly retreated, going in the direction of Cumber- 
land Gap. 

A day or two after the enemy had gone we had an impos- 
ing array of generals to view us, review us and command 
us — Major-General Ransom, Major-General Sam Jones, Brig- 
adier-Generals Wharton, Wm. E. Jones, Jackson and 

General Ransom, commanding the department, reorganized 
the cavalry. To General Williams were assigned the Fourth 
Kentucky, First Tennessee, Sixteenth Georgia, Chenoweth's 
and Trimble's battalions, Slemp's Refugee regiment and 
Schoolfield's battery. General Wm. E. Jones was given a 
brigade, consisting of the Eighth Virginia Cavalry, a fine 
regiment, Witcher's battalion, Peters' regiment and other 
detachments, whose names I do not remember. 



General Ransom — General Wm. E. Jones — General John S. 
Williams — General Geo. B. Crittenden. 

General Ransom 

WAS a North Carolinian and a " West Pointer ; " a 
martinet and a strict disciplinarian, crabbed and 
imperious. He had a fine martial appearance, and — a fond- 
ness for persimmon beer. His curt, domineering manner, 
and the issuance of an order prohibiting officers and soldiers 
from entering the homes of citizens, uninvited, made him 
exceedingly unpopular. His idea was to treat volunteer 
troops the same as regulars. 

General Wm. E. Jones 

Was an eccentric officer, who seemed to take pleasure in 
self-torture, as if doing penance. 

At a point near Bristol, Tenn., I was sent to him with a 
message and found him lying on the ground, face downward, 
in a tent filled with smoke from a smoldering fire in the 
center. I involuntarily drew back. In muffled tones the 
general called to me : "Lie flat down and the smoke won't 
hurt you." I dropped upon my hands and knees, crawled to 
him and delivered the message — about as ludicrous and undig- 
nified a scene as one could well imagine. 

General Jones had served with Stonewall Jackson, and 
rode a little, trotting clay-bank mare, to which he was much 
attached. He said the famous Stonewall had ridden the 
unpretentious-looking animal in the battles of Harpers Ferry, 
Sharpsburg and Second Manassas. He was a small man, 
beyond middle life, exceedingly plain in dress, brave to afault, 
cool and imperturbable. He was killed, shot through the 
head while charging the enemy, hat in hand, at Piedmont, Va. 


General John S. Williams 

Was a rough-and-ready fighter, but no strategist. He had 
made himself famous for bravery at the battle of Cerro Gordo, 
Mexico, and has ever since been known as Cerro Gordo 
Williams. He was a man of splendid physique, bluff but 
genial and pleasing in manner, generally popular with officers 
and men who served under him, but had a faculty of incurring 
the disfavor of his superior officers. He was severely criti- 
cised for his management of the East Tennessee campaign, 
and especially for his conduct at Rheatown. His proud spirit 
could not, and would not, endure the innuendoes and criti- 
cisms emanating from department headquarters and from a 
few of his own officers. Consequently, he issued the following 
address : 

Headquarters Williams' Cavalry Brigade, 

November 4, 1863. 

Fellow-Soldiers : I have asked to be temporarily relieved from 
the command of this brigade, because my honor would not allow me 
to retain it longer. 

It is unnecessary for me to recite the reasons which have impelled 
me to take this step. 

My association with you has been short, but full of stirring events. 
The patient endurance and devoted courage you have shown in one 
of the most trying and difficult campaigns of this or any other war 
command my highest admiration and endear you to me by one of the 
strongest of human ties — that of sharing common hardships and a 
common danger. 

I hope it may not be long until I am with you again ; but whether 
the separation be temporary or final, I shall ever cherish in kindest 
remembrance the many evidences of generous confidence you have 
given me. 

John S. Williams, Brigadier-General. 

We all knew that the address was a valedictory, and that 
it meant final separation. The men regretted it very much — 
all having a warm place in their hearts for genial, hard-fight- 
ing General Williams. 

The general took service with Wheeler, I think, and we 
saw him no more until, unexpectedly, we met him in the 
early morn of the battle of Saltville, a year hence. 


General George B. Crittenden. 

For a brief time the brigade and division were commanded 
by General George B. Crittenden, during the East Tennessee 
campaign. I remember that he had us drawn up in line of 
battle, near Zollicoffer Bridge, expecting an enemy who failed 
to appear in any consequential force. I do not think we 
fought any engagement of consequence under General 

General Crittenden was a small man, genial and courteous, 
a trained soldier, plain in dress and unostentatious in manner, 
often thoughtful and abstracted as if pondering deeply some 
military problem. I remember that I felt profoundly 
respectful when in the presence of General George B. 



East Tennessee; Campaign (Continued) — Battle of 
Bid Creek, November 6, 1863. 

" Each soldier's name 
Shall shine untarnished on the roll of fame, 
And stand the example of each distant age, 
And add new luster to the historic page." 

COLONEL, HENRY L,. GH/TNER, now commanding 
the brigade, soon became restive and inclined to rebel 
against the iron rule of General Ransom. Always somewhat 
refractor}', those of us who were nearest to him and knew 
him best were not surprised when he threatened to follow 
General Williams' example and resign, rather than obey the 
mandates of the grim martinet, Ransom. In fact a number 
of high-spirited Kentucky officers soon incurred the general's 
displeasure, and his edicts became more and more offensive. 
Finally, Colonel Tandy Pryor, commanding the Fourth Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, roundly and vehemently abused Major Branch, 
chief of Ransom's staff, and, of course, was ordered under 

The brigade was again in Tennessee, General Ransom's 
headquarters being at Blountville. On the morning of 
November 4th the general, desiring a conference with Gilt- 
ner, had to send for him two or three times before the daunt- 
less colonel condescended to honor the summons. He was 
much mollified, however, when he found that the general 
was contemplating a forward movement, his plan involving 
the capture of a Federal force at Rogersville. It was known 
that Colonel Israel Garrard was at that place with the Seventh 
Ohio Cavalry, the Second Tennessee Mounted Infantry and 
a battery of artillery. The plan was for General Wm. E. 
Jones to march south of Holston River and gain the enemy's 
rear, while Giltner should attack in front. 

On November 5th the brigade moved to a point below 


Kingsport, going into camp for a short time, late in the 
afternoon. It was raining — cold, dreary, disgusting Novem- 
ber weather. Just before dark we began crossing the Holston 
River in the following order : First Tennessee, Tenth Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, Lowry's battery, 
Sixteenth Georgia, Sixty-fourth Virginia — about one thou- 
sand fighting men. 

It rained nearly all night, and was dark as Erebus. The 
crossing of the river was difficult and dangerous. Men got 
lost in the darkness, and notwithstanding the order for abso- 
lute silence, they would shout the names of lost comrades, 
and bedlam reigned generally Horses fell down, men were 
rolling in the rapid stream, some were badly injured, and 
nearly all, for the time being, were sorry they had ever left 
the old Kentucky home to join the cavalry. We were delayed 
by General Jones' brigade, sixteen hundred strong, crossing 
our road, he having found his original route impracticable. 
He now intended to go to Rogersville, on the flank and in 
rear of the enemy, and it became necessary for Giltner to 
delay in order to give Jones time. 

Before daylight our advance met a company of scouts near 
Surgoinsville and chased them several miles toward Rogers- 
ville. They, of course, warned the enemy, who doubtless 
were not expecting a visit from us on such an inclement 

The dawn of day revealed the enemy posted on a high 
and strong position. Not many were in sight, but we sus- 
pected that the whole force was masked in the timber, or 
concealed behind the ridge. Our artillery, which had gotten 
far behind on account of the darkness and bad road, was 
ordered up, but before it arrived the enemy disappeared. 
The brigade moved rapidly forward, and, to our astonish- 
ment, we found the enemy crossing the river at Russells 
Ford. Their wagons and artillery lined the road. Giltner 
ordered Colonel Carter with the First Tennessee to double 
quick across the fields to cut off the retreat. The movement 
was successful and the enemy returned to their original 
position on the hills beyond Big Creek. They, however, 
left two pieces of artillery, with a strong support, on our 
side of the creek, which promptly opened upon our advance. 


Major Parker, with the Fourth Kentucky, and Colonel 
Trimble, with the Tenth Kentucky, came to the front at a 
gallop, dismounted within three hundred yards of the belch- 
ing cannon, and charged. Carter, who had cut off the retreat 
at the ford, was on the flank of the guns, and he also charged 
them, and, I think, he reached them first. However, all 
were there in briefer time than it takes to tell it. Of course 
the guns were captured, as was also a large number of wagons 
parked in Russell's lot. The teamsters had run away, and 
the mules, uncontrolled, were charging and running into 
each other and colliding the wagons, many of them being 
wrecked. The wagons were loaded with commissary, quar- 
termaster and ordnance stores. The brigade, scarcely halt- 
ing, charged the main body of the enemy and their artillery, 
posted on a commanding elevation beyond Big Creek, a 
broad, deep and rapid stream. Notwithstanding the fire of 
the enemy our troops never halted until they were within 
the Federal lines. After a sharp fight of probably a half 
hour, the Fourth Kentucky captured the battery and about 
five hundred prisoners, with arms, horses, wagons, etc. 
Most of the prisoners belonged to the Second Tennessee 
Mounted Infantry, the Seventh Ohio Cavalry having, for the 
most part, escaped at the ford. Major Clark, with the Six- 
teenth Georgia, while pursuing those who had escaped 
captured many prisoners. We captured in all about six 
hundred — one major, seven captains, one adjutant-general 
and many minor officers. Their commander, Colonel Gar- 
rard, thinking discretion the better part of valor, escaped hy 
leaving the field with the Seventh Ohio Cavalry at the first 

Immediately after the surrender the boys scattered over the 
field, looking for spoils, and found, in profusion, blankets, 
guns, pistols, sabers, clothing, camp equipage, etc. Probably 
fifty loaded wagons were captured and brought out. Two or 
three disabled caissons and a number of damaged wagons 
were cut down and burned. We lost only three men killed 
and four or five wounded. The enemy lost about fifteen 
killed and thirty wounded, and some were drowned in their 
frantic attempt to cross the river. Adjutant-General Guer- 


rant and Sergeant-Major Frank Harrison paroled the 
wounded. There were sad scenes on the field. Dead and 
wounded neglected, horses shot dead at hitching posts or 
rolling in agonies of death ; others whinnying wistfully for 
food and drink. When we started back nearly every soldier 
was leading a horse, some leading two. 

General Jones never got into the fight at all. However, 
he did good service; the Eighth Virginia Cavalry of his 
brigade gained the enemy's rear and intercepted about two 
hundred fugitives. The general also captured small detach- 
ments in Carters Valley, making a total of about eight hun- 
dred prisoners. 

General Ransom issued the following complimentary 
address : 

Headquarters Department Southwest Virginia and 
East Tennessee. 

Beountville, November 10, 1863. 
[General Orders, No. 10.] 

It is with pleasure that the major-general commanding announces 
to the troops the successful attack of our cavalry upon the enemy at 
Rogersville, Tenn., on the 6th inst., resulting in the capture of eight 
hundred prisoners, four pieces of artillery, four stands of colors, 
sixty wagons, one thousand horses and mules, small arms, ammuni- 
tion and other valuable stores, with a loss of only three killed and four 
or five wounded. 

The major-general commanding offers his heartfelt thanks to the 
officers and men engaged, and hopes that this brilliant exploit will be 
the earnest of continued and substantial success in the future. 

By command of 

Major-General Ransom. 

F. Rowland, A. A. G. 



A Literary Symposium. 

AT brigade headquarters was a coterie of literati, com- 
posed of Major Henry T Stanton, Captain Edward 0. 
Guerrant, Lieutenant Henry T. Anderson, Captain Barney 
Giltner and Captain J. J McAfee — classical scholars, poets, 
critics, etc. All of them were staff officers, refined, fastidious 
in dress, and when assembled about the bivouac fire they 
usually engaged in the discussion of some literary topic, 
often edifying and amusing. Of course there was a diversity 
of genius and talent, which made the symposium the more 

Major Henry T. Staxtox was the poet pre-eminent, 
and like all poets he had his moods. At times he was so 
abstracted that he neither knew nor recognized his intimate 
friends; in fact he became oblivious to allsurroun dings. Seat- 
ing himself at the mess-table he would toy with his knife and 
fork, forgetting to eat a mouthful. These were sure symp- 
toms of a forthcoming poem, the advent of which we all 
awaited with pleasurable expectancy, carefully refraining 
from breaking "the spell that bound him." He wrote a 
great deal; many of his productions abounding in pathos, 
while others were light, airy and witty. Of the latter, one 
"string of verses " in particular amused not only his own 
coterie, but was recited and sung and laughed over by the 
boys of the entire brigade. The command had captured a 
rich Federal wagon train, and, as usual, the boys appropri- 
ated to their own use everything they could lay their hands 
upon. General Wm. E. Jones, in command at the time, 
issued an order that mules, coffee, sugar and other " spoils 
of war " should be turned over to his quartermaster as Con- 
federate States property, to be distributed, probably, among 
troops who were strangers. This order caused a vigorous 


"kick" and an indignant howl all along the lines, and 

inspired Major Stanton to write the " funny " verses referred 

to. I can now recall only the concluding line of each 

stanza : 

" General Jones, here's your mule." 

Like nearly all "literary fellows," Major Stanton was 
extremely careless about financial matters. If he had money 
he would spend it, not seeming to realize its value. When 
the poetic afflatus was not dominating his being he was one 
of the jolliest, most companionable of men, and notably 
fond of fine clothes, flowers and pretty girls. 

Captain Edward 0. Guerrant was the most religiously- 
inclined member of the quintet, although he was sparkling 
in conversation and fond of society. He was a voluminous 
prose writer, and also wrote and quoted a great deal of 
poetry. His vocabulary seemed to be co-extensive with an 
unabridged dictionary, and with ease and facility he con- 
structed sentences containing the purest gold of the English 
language. His conversational powers were unrivaled — 
fluent, didactic, oratorical, witty and pathetic. I herewith 
append a stanza of one of his effusions, which comprised five 
verses : 

" Who is this lying in a spot so lone, 

Without a monument or even a stone 

To tell to the stranger and passer-by 

Who it is that slumbers here so quietly ? 

No sweet-scented roses, no sister's sad tear; 

No green arbor-vitse to bloom all the year ; 

Not even a coffin, a shroud, or a sigh. 

All unwept and unhonored the stranger doth lie. 

Only a soldier! " 

Lieutenant Henry T. Anderson was a cold, cynical 
critic, but withal a pleasant young gentleman who had been 
reared among educators and all his life had breathed the atmos- 
phere of the classics. His father was principal of an academy 
at Paris, Ky., his home, and his uncle, Henry T Anderson, 
was principal of a noted institution of learning at Harrods- 
burg, Ky., a famed preacher and author of a translation of 
the New Testament, in which he invariably uses the word 


immerse, instead of the word baptize. Lieutenant Anderson 
was often a combatant when discussing some linguistic nicety, 
and was always tenacious of any position he assumed. As a 
dialectician he was probably the superior of the other mem- 
bers of the staff, whom he would frequently startle by assert- 
ing some unorthodox proposition, and then he would proceed 
coolly to lay down his premises, and, nonchalantly, though 
logically, to draw a conclusion which left them in breathless 
amaze and incapable of refuting-his audacious assumption. He 
was a medium-sized young man, of conservative habits and 
scrupulously particular in matters of dress and personal clean- 
liness. He was the inspector-general of the brigade — a dar- 
ing and efficient officer. 

Captain Barney Gii/Tner, tall, well formed, blonde com- 
plexion, exquisitely attired in a captain's full dress uniform, 
his linen always immaculately clean, was the wit of the quin- 
tet and also a philosopher. He was aid-de-camp to his 
cousin, Colonel Giltner. His home was at or near Versailles, 
Ky. , where he had been reared in aristocratic affluence, and 
true to his training and surroundings he was essentially a 
patrician to whom the provincialisms and uncouth manners of 
the plebeian were peculiarly disgusting. Being well educated, 
refined and of luxurious habits, he was much of a sybarite, 
ill-adapted to the rough-and-tumble life of a Confederate 
cavalryman. His quaint sayings, apropos quotations, witti- 
cisms and songs enlivened many a dreary bivouac hour. He 
lost no opportunity to bask in the smiles of some Virginia or 
Tennessee belle 

" And frame love ditties passing rare, 
And sing them to a lady fair." 

At times, when the menu was poor in quality and limited 
in quantity, the weather unpropitious and his clothes spotted 
with unavoidable plebeian mud, his splenetic observations and 
comical facial expressions were so irresistibly ludicrous that 
the laugh went around, and everybody for the time being 
forgot his discomforts and tribulations. There was a marked 
contrast between his own appearance and that of his horse. 
Previous to coming into his possession his chestnut sorrel 



charger was fat, sleek and handsome, but by reason of con- 
tinued neglect he became emaciated and wretchedly forlorn, 
and to make matters even worse some vandal had clipped his 
foretop locks and cut his tail " short and square." Thereafter 
the horse was known as " Bushwhack." Captain Guerrant, 
whose own horse was always carefully groomed, asked Giltner 
why he did not curry " Bushwhack," and received for reply : 
" Good God ! Ed, it would ruin my clothes." 

Captain John J. McAfee. An intellectual young gen- 
tleman of attractive personality, a smooth, fluent talker, lull 
of humor and a ready writer was Captain John J. McAfee, 
adjutant-general of General George B. Cosby's brigade. He 
was also war correspondent for a Richmond newspaper, his 
contributions being literary gems, valuable in information 
and often intensely interesting by reason of their effervescing 
humor. Captain McAfee was fastidious in all things and of 
aristocratic tendency. Withal he was a bon vivant. When 
rations were short he had a ludicrous habit of placing his 
hands upon his stomach, and with a far-away expression in 
his eyes, saying, "My stomach feels heated and unsatisfied- 
like." Because of his genial temperament and warm, rosy 
complexion he was nicknamed " Ginger." There was much 
in common between him and Barney Giltner, they being boon 

Soon after the war Captain McAfee married Miss Nellie 
Marshall, the brilliant daughter of General Humphrey 



Stampeding Wolford's Cavalry. 

" To horse ! to horse ! the sabers gleam ; 
High sounds our bugle call." 

IF there existed a body of Federal troops that the Kentucky- 
boys dreaded to meet, it was gallant General Frank 
Wolford's famous Kentucky command. They had the repu- 
tation of being invincible fighters, almost uniformly success- 
ful in their numerous conflicts. Our boys frequently dis- 
cussed the probability of meeting that heroic band of Ken- 
tucky warriors, and speculated much as to the result of a 
conflict with them. All knew it would be Greek against 
Greek, Keutuckian' against Kentuckian. I have forgotten 
the date and place, but it was during the East Tennessee 
campaign, in the autumn of 1863, that the long expected, if 
not hoped for, contest took place. Candor compels me to 
admit, however, that Wolford's boys scarcely had a fair show. 
Early one morning, learning that there was a troop of 
Federal cavalry encamped a few miles in our front, Colonel 
Giltner determined to attack them forthwith, not knowing, 
however, that it was Wolford's cavalry. Detaching two squad- 
rons of the Fourth Kentucky, the one commanded by Lieu- 
tenant Robert Alexander, of Company B, and the other, I 
think, by Captain Dick Gathright, of Company H, the 
colonel ordered one of them to the left of the road and the 
other to the right ; both squadrons were to march in parallel 
columns, some distance from the road, and considerably in 
advance of the main column, the object being to turn the 
enemy's picket post, and surprise and capture the picket 
guard, and thus prevent, if possible, the enemy from being 
apprised of our approach. The plan succeeded beyond our 
most sanguine expectations. Alexander and Gathright went 
headlong into Wolford's camp, along with the pickets, and 


the main column, yelling like Comanches, soon caught up 
with the advanced squadrons and charged pell-mell through 
the camp, literally running over the surprised Federals. An 
indescribable melee followed, the enemy being so astonished 
and demoralized that they seemed to have one thought — that 
of getting away Never was there a more complete rout, 
and we have always wondered what became of the enemy. 
Although we were right among them, in their camp, we took 
few prisoners. Probably our own men were too much excited 
and forgot their business. The Federals scattered helter- 
skelter in every direction, and seemed to hide and disappear 
with the instinct and facility of young quails. The boys were 
very proud of this victory They had attacked Wolford's 
cavalry and vanquished it, signally, completely What the 
result might have been, had the two opposing Kentucky 
forces met in a fair, open field, of course no one knows. All 
is fair in war, and we were extremely fortunate in " getting 
the drop ' ' on Wolford that morning. The Fourth Kentucky 
Cavalry never more dreaded to meet Wolford's Kentuckians, 
and, in fact, never did meet them again. General Frank 
Wolford resigned his commission when Lincoln issued his 
Emancipation Proclamation, and, after the war, became a 
member of Congress. 



General Longstreet in Tennessee — The Siege of Knoxville — 
Assault Upon Fort Sanders — Minor Infantry and Cav- 
alry Engagements. 

" Through the sounding -woods there come 
Banner and bugle, trump and drum." 

GENERAL LONGSTREET and his veteran army corps, 
covered with scars and carrying tattered red battle- 
flags, had come from sanguinary Eastern battlefields to rein- 
force Bragg at Chattanooga. Having fought with the West- 
ern troops at Chickamauga, defeating Rosecrans, the veterans 
of the East turned their faces toward Knoxville, and after a 
sharp engagement at Campbells Station, where the gallant 
Federal general, W- P Sanders, only twenty-eight years old, 
was killed, General Longstreet began to besiege General 
Burnside at Knoxville, November 15, 1863. 

Longstreet's environment of the city was so complete that 
it seemed to be merely a question of time when Burnside, cut 
off from his supplies, would necessarily be forced to capitulate. 
Hood's division of infantry was stationed at a point whence it 
could readily move upon Burnside, should he attempt to 
retreat. Our cavalry was kept busy guarding and watching 
the numerous roads, intercepting supply trains, etc. Cavalry 
fights were of almost daily occurrence, and the infantry lines 
had so closely invested the Federal works that skirmish firing 
was almost incessant. Finally General Longstreet deter- 
mined upon making an assault, and several consultations were 
held as to the most vulnerable point in the enemy's works of 

General Longstreet, who always rode over his battlefields, 

" His line to marshal and to range, 
And ranks to square and fronts to change," 

says that on the night of November 25th, in company with 


his engineer, he made a reconnoissance of the entire Federal 
position, and concluded to assault Fort Sanders. There was 
a ditch at the base of the fort, about which the Confederates 
had some misgivings, but the leading officers finally agreed 
that the ditch would not offer any serious obstacle to a rush 
upon the fort. Strange mistake ! The ditch proved to be 
" a horrible pit." General Longstreet himself says he saw a 
man " march out of the fort, down the ditch and up the 
other side ; " that the ditch seemed to him to have been made 
more for the purpose of getting dirt than for making of it an 
obstruction. It was reported to General Longstreet by officers 
on the outposts that they had seen dogs pass over the same 

General McL,aws, who made the assault, says in his official 
report: " Before 4 o'clock on the morning of November 29th 
I went around with my staff to superintend the execution of 
my orders for the assault. It was evident to me that the 
enemy was aware that one was intended, and I think it prob- 
able they knew where it was to be made, for while I was 
talking to Colonel Ruff, on the railroad, the enemy threw a 
shell, which burst over the woods just in rear of us, through 
which Colonel Ruff's command (Wofford's brigade) was pass- 
ing, assembling by regiments for the assault. I have since 
heard that the enemy were informed, and that during the night 
of the 28th they had been employed in pouring buckets of water 
over the parapet to render it difficult to ascend, the night 
being very cold. The commands being in position and in 
readiness, and the sharpshooters having been directed to open 
fire all along their lines as soon as it was light enough to aim, 
I distributed my staff officers along the line and rode over to 
Major L,eyden's battery and to General Kershaw's line, and 
found Major I,eyden waiting until it was light enough to see 
his elevators and Kershaw's line ready. I gave Major Leyden 
orders to open fire while I was there, and then rode toward the 
assaulting columns. As I went they could be seen advancing 
in fine style. I rode straight to Wofford's brigade, on the 
left, and as I approached the work found the men falling 
back, the officers reporting that it was impossible to mount 
the parapet and that the brigade commander, Colonel Ruff, 
and his next in command, Colonel Thomas, had been killed, 


and the next in command wounded. I rallied the brigade 
about four hundred yards from the work, reformed the regi- 
ments in the order they went to the assault, notified them who 
was their brigade commander and the regiments who com- 
manded them, and then consulted with Generals Humphreys 
and Bryan, and finding that it was useless to attempt to take 
the work I reported to General Longstreet, and asked author- 
ity to withdraw my command. Permission was given, and 
the main body was withdrawn, but the advanced line of pits 
was held by the sharpshooters. When it was seen that Wof- 
ford's brigade could not mount the parapet General G. T 
Anderson's brigade, of Hood's division, came rushing up to 
the assault, in the same place where my command had 
attempted it, but was repulsed at once and retired." 

General McL,aws further says : " The assault failed because 
of the state of the weather on the night previous to the assault 
and the night of the assault, it having rained on the night of 
the 27th, and then, turning cold, the parapet was hard frozen 
and a heavy ice crop was formed by the moisture from the 
bank, which prevented the men from obtaining a foothold, 
and the absence of a berme from which they could mount 
and start. The main cause of failure was, however, the slip- 
periness of the parapet, upon which it was impossible for 
any large body of men to gain a foothold, and the severe fire 
from the north side of the fort, which drove the men from the 
most accessible points of assault. And, I may add, that it is 
the opinion of distinguished officers, who were engaged in 
the assault, that if the skirmishers on the railroad side of the 
work had silenced the enemy's fire coming from that side, as 
it was silenced by my line of sharpshooters, the work would 
have been carried in spite of all the other obstacles. I do not 
think that ladders would have been of material assistance, 
unless they could have been furnished in great numbers and 
had been twenty feet long. The reconnoissances were alsa 
defective, giving false notions of the character of the work 
and of the ditch." 

Captain Benjamin, who had charge of the Federal artillery 
in the fort, said that if the attack had been made at any other 
point than upon Fort Sanders it must have been successful. 
Colonel Poe, Burnside's engineer, who directed the building 

iltllf «j£li5 


1 IP I 

IS i 


of the fort, says that no bastion in the works was completed 
except the one assaulted by McL,aws. He further says that 
the ditch that had to be crossed by an assaulting column was 
twelve feet wide, and in many places eight feet deep. 

General Burnside says in his official report: " At about 
6:30 a. m. the enemy opened a furious fire upon the fort ; our 
batteries remained silent and the men quietly awaited the 
attack. In about twenty minutes the cannonading ceased and 
a fire of musketry was opened by the enemy. At the same 
time a heavy column that had been concentrated under the 
ridge, near the fort during the night, charged on the bastions 
at a run. Great numbers of them fell in passing over the 
entanglements, but the weight of the column was such as to 
force the advance forward, and in two or three minutes they 
had reached the ditch and attempted to scale the parapet. 
Our guns opened upon the men in the ditch with canister, 
and our infantry shot or knocked back all those whose heads 
appeared above the parapet. The forces placed on the flanks 
of the fort had a cross fire on the ground over which the 
enemy approached. Most of those who reached the ditch 
were either killed or mortally wounded. Such as could not 
retreat surrendered, in all about five hundred. The ground 
between the crest and the fort was strewed with dead and 
wounded, who were crying for help, and after the repulse 
was fully established, I tendered the enemy a flag of truce 
for the purpose of burying the dead -and caring for the 

It will be seen that the wire entanglements on the open 
ground did not retard the advance of the assaulting troops, 
General Burnside testifying that the run from the crest to 
the fort was made within two minutes. The Confederates 
lost about one thousand men, while Burnside claims that 
only twelve of his men were killed. The Federals, them- 
selves, say that it would have been almost impossible for 
men to ascend the parapet even if it had been undefended. 
Burnside's engineer, under whose direction the fort was con- 
structed, in his official report says of the fort: "It is a 
bastioned earth-work, built upon an irregular quadrilateral; 
the sides are respectively one hundred and twenty-five yards 
southern front, ninety-five yards western front, one hundred 


and twenty-five yards northern front and eighty-five yards 
eastern front. The eastern front was entirely open ; the 
southern front was about half done ; the western front was 
finished except cutting the embrasures, and the northern front 
was nearly finished. Each bastion was intended to have pan 
coupe. The bastion attacked was the only one that was com- 
pletely finished. A light twelve-pounder was mounted at 
the pan coupe and did good service. The ditch of the fort 
was twelve feet in width, and in many places as much as 
eight feet in depth. The irregularity of the site was such 
that the bastion angles were very heavy, the relief of the 
lightest one being twelve feet. The relief of the one attacked 
was about thirteen feet, and, together with the depth of the 
ditch, say eleven feet, made a height of twenty feet from the 
bottom of the ditch to the interior crest." A great many 
men were killed in the ditch by bombs which the enemy 
threw over the parapet, by hand. 

Mr. Pollard, the Southern historian, says of this daring 
assault : ' ' Never, excepting at Gettysburg, was there in the 
history of the war a disaster adorned with the glory of such 
devout courage as L,ongstreet's repulse at Knoxville." 

The defeat of Bragg at Missionary Ridge, and the march 
of Sherman to the relief of Burnside, made it necessary for 
General L,ongstreet, December 2d, to raise the siege of Knox- 
ville, which he did by withdrawing his forces in the direction 
of Blain's Crossroads* and Rutledge, east of the city. 

During the remainder of the winter there were numerous 
sharp contests east of Knoxville, in which Longstreet's 
forces were almost uniformly victorious. In nearly all of 
these conflicts Giltner's cavalry were actively engaged, either 
in advance or covering the rear. Cavalry skirmishes were 
of daily occurrence, and so familiar did the opposing cavalry 
become with each other that they could almost invariably tell 
whom they were fighting. The Federals always recognized 
the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, and when the fight had 
opened they would exclaim : " There's, that d — d Fourth 
Kentucky again." 

General L,ongstreet and his grande corps d'armee returned 
to the Army of Northern Virginia early in the spring of 1864. 


Schooi<fiei,d's Battery. 

THE unique little batten,* commanded bj- Captain J. J. 
Schoolfield was invented by a man named Williams, of 
Covington, Ky., who went to Richmond early in the war and 
induced the Confederate Government to cast a battery of six 
guns. This was the only batten- of the kind, I think, in the 
Confederate army During much of the war it was attached 
to our brigade, and the twenty -five young men who manned 
it intimately affiliated with the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry 
The names of a majority of the batten- membership are to be 
found on the muster-roll of Captain Bart Jenkins' company. 

It was a small breech- loading gun, the breech being thrown 
out by a spring, when the gun was discharged, thereby per- 
mitting a current of air to pass through the long barrel, which 
had a tendency to keep it cool while being actively worked. 
It carried a one pound solid ball, but upon occasion it did 
effective sen T ice at short range when loaded with buckshot 
and half-ounce ball cartridges. The gun could be fired about 
forty times a minute, and being mounted upon a light car- 
riage it could be run from point to point by hand. The little 
batter5 T often did great execution, and the Federals were fre- 
quently puzzled to know the character of artillery they were 

On one of the inconsequential raids into the mountains of 
Kentucky Colonel Tom Johnson took one of the little guns 
with his battalion, but I do not think any of the regular bat- 
ten-men accompanied it. While encamped somewhere near 
the Big Sandy River, in a narrow valley, flanked by high 
mountains, a noted Union partisan, named Patrick, entered 
Johnson's camp at night and stole the gun away. Patrick 
told me of the circumstance since the war, and said he was 
like the man who drew the elephant — that he did not know 
what to do with the gun after he had captured (?) it. The 


incident was the occasion of much amusement to Federals and 
Confederates. Some months afterward, while the little bat- 
ter}- was encamped in Virginia, Colonel Tom Johnson, riding 
by, could not resist the temptation to say something " funny '' 
and sarcastic about the guns. Accosting John Fish, one of 
the cannoneers, he said : ' ' You had better keep your eyes 
on those guns or some woman may slip into camp and carry 
them off." Fish, who did not know the colonel, replied : 
"Oh, we are not uneasy. The only man in the army who 
would permit such a thing is Old Tom Johnson, and he is not 
in command here." 

In one of the battles in Tennessee, I can not remember the 
name of the place, the battery signally distinguished itself. 
I think General George B. Crittenden was in command, and 
that the fight occurred just before General John S. Williams 
took command of us. We had been falling back for several 
days, skirmishing nearl}- all the while, until we reached the 
point referred to, when Captain Schoolfield was ordered to 
take position on a little hill on the right, in a valley, and 
await the coming of the enemy. The remainder of the com- 
mand moved back nearly a mile in rear of Schoolfield 's 
position, leaving his battery dangerously exposed and unsup- 
ported. Why the battery was left isolated on the outpost I 
never knew nor understood. The gallant youths with the 
guns made a frail fortification of fence-rails and grimly waited 
for the Federals, who soon appeared in strong force. A hot 
fire was immediately opened on both sides, and a close and 
deadly combat ensued, which lasted probably an hour. 
Schoolfield, unsupported, held his position until he was 
flanked, and the enemy in front charged almost to the muz- 
zles of his guns. In fact the enemy in front had to cease 
firing for fear of killing their own men, who were on the 
flanks and trying to surround the battery. The men had to 
run their guns off the field by hand, as no horses could have 
lived to get to them. Even then the battery would have been 
captured had not a part of the Fourth Kentucky gone to the 
rescue. The Fourth Kentucky boys met the guns just as 
Schoolfield had succeeded in getting them beyond the brow 
of the hill, probably one hundred and fifty yards from the 


enemy. The batterymen were so exhausted that they could 
do nothing more, and the boys of Company E, Fourth Ken- 
tucky, took hold of the guns and rushed them down the hill. 
Lieutenant Archie Smith was in command of the detachment 
of Company E, and he and his men not only had to handle 
the guns, but they had to assist Schoolfield and his exhausted 
men off the field. The enemy continued to press them until 
one of our larger batteries on a hill in the rear opened on 
them and checked their advance. 

As soon as he had gotten his battery out Schoolfield went 
to headquarters, where he received a compliment he will 
never forget. When he entered the house Major Parker was 
sitting on the only chair in the room. He immediately 
arose, saluted and requested Captain Schoolfield to be' seated. 
The captain declined, but the major insisted that he should 
take the chair, saying that the gallant commander of the bat- 
tery was the only officer in the command who had now a 
right to a seat in the chair that day. 

Bud Peters, an adopted son of Judge Peters, of the Ken- 
tucky Court of Appeals, an exceedingly promising youth of 
Schoolfield' s little command, was drowned in Nola Chuck y 
River, which the battery was crossing on its way to Green- 
ville, Tenn. With uncovered head I salute Captain 
Schoolfield and his gallant young artillerists. 


Captain Bart W. Jenkins and His Troopers. 

" He was a stal worth knight and keen, 
And had in many a battle been ; 
His eyebrow dark and eye of fire, 
Showed spirit proud and prompt to ire ; 
Yet lines of thought upon his cheek, 
Did deep design and counsel speak." 

CAPTAIN BART JENKINS, "manly, bold and tall," 
generous and impulsive, was a military genius. As 
intimated in another chapter the victory at Limestone must 
be ascribed to Captain Jenkins, who suggested the strategical 
maneuvers, and to the dash and hard fighting of the Fourth 
Kentucky Cavalry. 

Captain Jenkins was naturally a leader, never a follower of 
men. He usually managed to keep his gallant troop 
independent and free from entanglements with other bat- 
talions. His little command, however, was frequently 
attached to the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, and his troopers 
were gladly received in any camp and their banner greeted 
with joyous acclaim on the battlefield, 

For they were clansmen, bold and true, 
Their chief as brave as Roderick Dhu. 

Captain Jenkins, always alert and a free rover, beaded his 
horse in the direction of the enemy's guns, often dropping 
into a fight unexpectedly, but at an opportune time. 

Early in the war Captain Jenkins, with twenty-eight men, 
Nathan Parker one of them, started from Lusbys Mills, 
Owen County, Ky., for the Confederate lines, and overtook 
Giltner and Pryor at Munfordsville, where he joined forces 
with an officer who was recruiting the " Buckner Guards." 
Captain Jenkins was influential in having Pryor elected first 
lieutenant and Nathan Parker second lieutenant, Jenkins 
himself and Giltner enlisting in the " guards " as private 


soldiers. Jenkins, however, was soon detached to drill new 
organizations, constantly forming. Soon thereafter General 
Simon B. Buckner appointed him chief of secret service, at 
the same time ordering him to select suitable men to send on 
secret service missions. Giltner was one of the men whom 
he selected, Jenkins personally undertaking the most delicate 
and dangerous mission — that of visiting Lebanon, Ky., where 
rested the left wing of the Federal army. When he returned 
from a successful performance of that service and reported to 
General Buckner, at Bowling Green, he found awaiting him 
a first lieutenant's commission, which had been forwarded by 
the secretary of war. He was then ordered to report to 
General Humphrey Marshall, General Buckner permitting 
Giltner to accompany him. 

When in June, 1862, General Marshall was ordered to 
Richmond, to meet in council General L,ee and other officers, 
Captain Jenkins, then aid-de-camp, accompanied him, and 
served on the staffs of Generals Hood and Magruder during 
the seven days' fighting around Richmond. He was with 
General John B. Magruder during the desperate and sangui- 
nary battle of Malvern Hill. For his gallant services in those 
great battles Jenkins was given a commission as captain of 
cavalry, with authority to recruit a company, a battalion, a 
regiment or a brigade, and was to be permitted to report for 
service in any department of the army that he should prefer. 
It was under that authority that Giltner, Pryor and Parker 
were enabled to visit Kentucky to recruit the Fourth Ken- 
tucky Cavalry Regiment. Captain Jenkins, however, at the 
earnest solicitation of General Marshall remained on that 
officer's staff until he resigned his commission in the army 
and was elected to the Confederate Congress. 

The generals around Richmond, recognizing Captain Jenk- 
ins' o-enius in war, admitted him to their councils, notably 
just before the battle of Mechanicsville, the first of the seven 

days' battle. 

In the closing days of the war Captain Jenkins and his 
" little army " fought a desperate engagement in Richmond, 
Va. which the captain thinks was the last battle fought on 
Virginia soil by organized troops. 


The following incident illustrates this superb cavalier's 
dauntless courage : Before leaving Kentucky for Dixieland 
a detachment of Federals, probably a company of ' ' Home 
Guards," led by a United States provost marshal, undertook 
to arrest him near his home in Henry County. They were 
well armed and boasted of their prowess and determination to 
capture the haughty and fiery Southron. Captain Jenkins 
made no effort to elude them. On the contrary, while the 
Federals were drawn up in line for some purpose, the gallant 
Jenkins, unattended, suddenly appeared on the scene, and 
with his bridle in his teeth and a revolver in each hand he 
deliberately rode the full length of the enemy's line. He 
uttered no word, but his cool audacity and flashing eves 
effectually quelled the Home Guardian war spirit — not a man 
of them daring to molest him. 

Jenkins' troops represented various Kentucky localities, 
many of them having been connected with the ' ' little bat- 
tery. ' ' For the most part they were young men of culture — 
gentlemanly, accomplished representatives of the best families 
in Kentucky The " roll-call " was in part as follows : 

B. W Jenkins, Captain. J. O. Bush. 

J. J. Schoolfield, First Lieutenant. Bussell. 

Cloud, Second Lieutenant. James Caldwell. 

Augustus Wood, Third Lieuten- James Carnes. 

ant. Wm. Carnes. 

Charles Hawkins, First Sergeant. Charles Case. 

Wm. Alanson, Second Sergeant. Wm. Case. 

Granville Buzzard, First Corporal. Robert Coleman. 

Campbell O'Xan, Second Corporal. Charles H. Colvin. 

George S. Adamson, Quartermas- Levi Colvin. 

ter Sergeant. Lloyd Corlis. 

George R. Woods, Farrier. Clark. 

Robert Anderson. Wm. Everett. 

Mark Asbury. Lewis Frazee. 

John Ashcraft. Thomas Frazier. 

Lewis Ashcraft. Charles Gill. 

Wm. Alexander. Samuel Gosney. 

D. Brainard Bayless. Henry Hamilton. 

James Berry. Vincent Hamilton. 

Good Bohannon. Wardner Hamilton. 

Robert Breeze. Joseph F. Hamilton. 

Harrison Browning. Charles L. Holton. 



Evan T. Howard. 
Theodore Hill. 
Wm. Jones. 
John Kilgour. 
Thomas Kilgour. 
Charles H. Lee. 
John Lenox. 
James Litteral. 
Wm. Longmore. 
Wm. A. McDonald. 
Wm. W. Macdonald. 
Wm. T. Marshall. 
Wm. Matthews. 
Amos Meadows. 
King Woods. 
Frank Miller. 
George Morford. 
James W. Morford. 
Alfred Murphy. 
Oliver Ogden. 

Jack Pavey. 

George V. Payne. 

Lewis C. Pope. 

Charles Rice. 

John Rice. 

Wm. Rice. 

H. Clay Skurvin. 

C. Columbus Stevens. 

Wm. Stevens. 

Boone Speers. 


John Walton. 
Richard Warren. 
Mason Webster. 
Moses Webster. 
John Whallen. 
John Whitehead. 
Baker Wiggins. 
H. P. Willis. 
Phares Weis. 

There are others whose names should be appended to this 
" Roll of Honor," but I am unable to obtain them, and the 
lapse of time has obliterated from my memory many gallant 
fellows whom I knew. 

A number of names on the foregoing list are especially 
memorable and deserving of the decoration of the ' ' L,egion of 
Honor. ' ' Frank Miller, clerk at brigade headquarters ; Phares 
Weis, assistant orderly officer, captured at Mt. Sterling and 
died in prison, were conspicuous for their accomplishments — 
brave, dashing boys. 

John Whallen of L-ouisville, Wm. Longmore, H. P. Willis 
and Brainard Bayless were superbly brilliant youths, model 
soldiers, graceful courtiers in an}' society 



Doctor Sam S. Scott — Adjutant Freeman — Sergeant-Major 
Harrison — Captain George T. Atkins — Captain George T. 
Campbell — Captain Warren Montfort — Lieutenant- 
Colonel Clarence J. Prentice— Dr. George S. Whipple. 

Dr. S. S. Scott. 

PROBABLY no other officer of the Fourth Kentucky 
Cavalry or of Giltner's brigade so fully realizes that 
thirty years have faded away since the flag was furled at 
Appomattox, and that the actors in the panoramic scenes of 
1 861-5, who survived the unequal contest, are swiftly crossing, 
the last river as does the regimental and brigade surgeon, 
Major Sam S. Scott, who is now an octogenarian — the waters 
of the silent river laving his feet. Major Scott was a surgeon 
of considerable skill, and when a battle was raging he was 
abreast of the front rank, attending to the wounded and 
alleviating the agonies of the dying. 

His was a tall, rather slender and somewhat stoop-shoul- 
dered figure, clothed in a black frock coat, with a major's gilt 
star decorating the collar. His intellectual face wore a cynical 
smile. He had said that he did not intend to have his long 
gray hair cut until the Confederacy should have gained its 
independence. He coiled his hair in a knot and tied it at the 
base of the skull, a la the fashion adopted by the women of 
that time. 

Doctor Scott was an educated, accomplished gentleman, 
and knew much of men and affairs. He was an intense 
Southern partisan, and being fond of adventure had been a 
member of the ill-starred Lopez expedition to Cuba. His 
thrilling description of the fate of young Crittenden and com- 
rades made a more lasting impression upon my boyish mind 
than all the history I had ever read of that fateful enterprise. 
It was a delight to hear him talk of Theodore O'Hara, soldier 
and poet, author of the immortal poem, " The Bivouac of the 
Dead." The doctor's wife was a near kinswoman of O'Hara. 


Doctor Scott, riding his fine gray mare with long, flowing 
white mane, and his little son, Charlie, probably not more 
than fourteen years old, who rode a beautiful black pony, 
were familiar figures on all marches and battlefields. In 
addition to the doctor and his son was another well-known 
person, Bob Hudson, fiddler and factotum. Now, of course, 
the doctor was entitled to a " headquarters wagon," in which 
to store his tent, cooking utensils, surgical apparatus, medi- 
cine chest, etc. The medicines generally consisted mostly 
of quinine and brandy, and the boys annoyed the doctor no 
little by pretending to be sick and demanding a modicum of 
brandy. When refused they would sometimes make a silent 
raid on the wagon at night, and imbibe copiously of the liquor 
while its guardian, Bob Hudson, was sleeping the sleep of the 
innocent. Poor Bob had a hard time, as the irascible doctor 
would ' ' cuss " him roundly for permitting the boys to steal 
the " medicine." 

Upon one occasion when General John C. Breckinridge, 
his adjutant-general, Colonel J- Stoddard Johnston, and other 
members of a brilliant and aristocratic staff were visiting the 
brigade, Doctor Scott invited them to his quarters and made 
their "mouths water" when he announced that he had 
several gallons of "mountain dew," which he could recom- 
mend as good medicine, and he forthwith prescribed that they 
must all " take something for their stomachs' sake." But, 
alas ! the boys had again outwitted Bob Hudson, and the 
genial host was obliged to make the humiliating confession 
to General Breckinridge that he could not deliver the goods, 
and I think the general regretted the situation even more 
than the doctor. 

At another time Captain Shuck Whitaker, at the midnight 
hour, deployed, a line of skirmishers and moved upon the 
doctor's wagon, and putting Allen Quinly, the driver, and 
one or two guards to ignominious flight captured a whole 
barrel of spiritus frumenti, and effected one of the most 
masterly retreats known in the annals of war. 

The doctor was a scientific checker-player, and fond of 
hearing the bands play, " Hell's broke loose in Georgia." 


Adjutant Terah M. Freeman. 

The adjutant of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry was at first 
the most unpopular officer in the regiment, but improved 
wonderfully on acquaintance, and became as popular as he 
had been unpopular. He came to the regiment a stranger, 
and having much to do with the drill and discipline of the 
men he made himself so obnoxious that, almost without 
exception, they absolutely hated him; threats and mutterings 
against him becoming so common that it was thought he 
would not survive the first battle, it being predicted that 
some one of our own men would shoot him. But presto, 
change ! it only required that first battle to win for him the 
fealty and admiration of the entire command. His gallantry 
and military knowledge made officers and men realize that 
his severe " training school " was for their own benefit, and 
opened their eyes to the importance of military discipline. 
Adjutant Freeman had taken them in hand when they were 
" raw and green," and it required heroic measures to bring 
their proud spirits under that submission so necessary to the 
efficiency of soldiers. I doubt that there was a better adju- 
tant in the army. 

Lieutenant Freeman was reared at or near Frankfort, Ky., 
and was an educated and rather aristocratic young officer, a 
martinet in army regulations, giving ready obedience himself 
and exacting it of others. 

His personal appearance was somewhat remarkable — a 
slender, symmetrical body, of medium height, a wealth of 
long, black, curly hair, smooth, beardless face, fine, clear-cut 
features and always scrupulously well attired — his appearance 
was strikingly feminine and withal handsome. His manner 
and martial bearing, however, were the opposite of effemi- 
nacy. The most wonderful thing about him was his voice- 
Whenever he formed the regiment on " dress parade" and 
gave the command, " Right dress ! " every soldier heard him. 
It was a marvel how such a strong, resonant voice could 
emanate from that slight, girl-like figure. It was a delight to 
see him on dress parade, with precise militarystep, gracefully 
marching up and down the line he was forming, his saber 


clanking with musical rhythm to his movements and to hear 
that ringing stentorian voice of command and to witness the 
grace with which he saluted the commanding officer when 
announcing that the parade was formed. 

Lieutenant Freeman was undoubtedly a better tactician and 
more thoroughly conversant with the book of Army Regula- 
tions than any other officer in the regiment or in the brigade. 
His services were invaluable to the commanding officer, and 
to him the regiment owed much for its fame as an exception- 
ally well-drilled and disciplined body of volunteer troops. 

Marshal Ney is said to have been " the bravest of the 
brave," but it is difficult to conceive how any soldier could 
be braver than Adjutant Freeman. An illustrative incident 
has been referred to in a previous chapter. He was fond of 
taking a man or two and penetrating within the enemy's 
lines for the purpose of acquiring information and of capturing 
some unwary Federal who might have strayed away from 
base. Upon one of these daring expeditions, near Tazewell, 
Tenn., he captured a courier, and with him a portfolio 
belonging to a Federal adjutant, in which were love letters 
and the picture of the Federal officer's sweetheart. Free- 
man wrote him a courteous note and sent it with the letters 
and picture and his compliments by special flag of truce. 

Sergeant-Major R. Prank Harrison — Headquarters 
Mess No. 2. 

The adjutant is an indispensable officer to any command. 
His duties are exacting and must be promptly and correctly 
performed. Adjutant Freeman and Sergeant-Major Harrison 
were each peculiarly well equipped to perform the duties of 
the adjutant's office. 

Major Harrison, when he enlisted as a private soldier, was 
a young man of lively, rollicking disposition, somewhat 
reckless. He would sing gay songs, make merry over the 
flowing bowl, manipulate the " pasteboards " and — in fact 
was a merry, jolly, all-around, happy-go-lucky sort of a fel- 
low. But the instant he was appointed sergeant-major of 


the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry there was a marvelous change. 
Appreciating the dignity and responsibilities of his new 
position he forsook all frivolities and dissipations, and 
became at once a model, dignified officer. Often for days, 
weeks and months, in the absence of the adjutant, he per- 
formed all the duties of the office as efficiently as when Free- 
man was present. 

In face, contour of head and bearing Major Harrison bore a 
striking resemblance to General John C. Breckinridge. 

Before I was transferred from regimental to brigade head- 
quarters I belonged to what the boys called " Headquarters 
Mess No. 2," composed of Major Harrison, Frank Darling, Tom 
Hayden and myself. Frank Darling, nephew of the colonel, 
and I were acting in the capacity of orderlies to the com- 
manding officer, and Tom Hayden was the bugler, hence it 
was necessary that our mess should always be near that of 
the colonel. Our mess had rather an unsavory reputation. 
None of the members would assist in the preparation of a 
meal if he could in any way avoid it. Each possessed an 
inherent antipathy to the vocation of " hewers of wood and 
drawers of water." 

When in camp and lucky enough to have any rations to 
cook Harrison almost invariably suddenly remembered that 
he had important business with the adjutant, always complet- 
ing the business, however, in time to put in an appearance at 
the frugal board when the meal was ready, and his appetite 
was also generally in approved normal condition. After 
awhile the rest of us " kicked," and broke up the mess, each 
fellow going to the quarters of some friend, and remaining 
until his welcome was worn out, which was usually a very 
brief time. We would then come together again, each agree- 
ing to do his part in the culinary line. Upon such occasions 
when the boys of the regiment perceived smoke again ascend- 
ing from our tent the cry would run through the encampment, 
" Reorganized ! reorganized ! " Alas ! it was only a tempo- 
rary reorganization. The greatest trouble seemed to be that 
each fellow was afraid he would do more work than the 
other fellows did. We were amiable, genial comrades, save 
when it came to cooking, and then there was no congeni- 


ality whatever. Bach had a special department assigned 
him. Tom Hayden was to prepare the meat, I was to knead 
the dough, Frank Darling was to cook it, and the sergeant- 
major, with a canteen or two, was expected to skirmish for 
water. There was almost always a hitch somewhere — the 
bread was a failure, the meat was burned or the " skirmisher 
for water " most ignominiously failed to " show up " at the 
critical moment, when water was urgently necessary in the 
culinary business. As a result the mess was continually dis- 
organizing and reorganizing. 

At opportune times Major Harrison had an amusing, dra- 
matic way of quoting an expression from Shakespeare which 
readily "pointed a moral or adorned a tale." There existed 
a current feeling among officers and men that had Major 
Harrison been invested with the power and authority of 
exalted rank he would have been as much of a martinet and 
as strict a disciplinarian as the most rigid " West Pointer." 

This impression obtained because of the thorough manner 
in which he performed the duties of the office he then held. 
He was captured during Morgan's last raid into Kentucky, 
at Cynthiana, Sunday morning, June 12, 1864, and was held 
a prisoner at Johnson's Island until the close of the war. 

Captain George T. Atkins. 

One evening during Bragg's occupancy of Kentucky, I was 
the bearer of a message from General Marshall to his wife 
and daughter, Miss Nellie, whom I found at the Phoenix 
Hotel, Lexington. When I left the parlor and went into 
the rotunda of the hotel, I found a brilliant array of well 
dressed, handsome Confederate officers engaged in animated 
conversation. One officer, wearing an elegant uniform, the 
more conspicuous because of a voluminous red sash about 
his waist, immediately attracted my attention. He talked in 
a louder tone than the others, and a peculiarly nonchalant, 
devil-may-care manner emphasized his presence. 

Of this man I was destined to see much during my service 
in the Confederacy. He was a New Yorker, a trained busi- 
ness man, who had drifted South and joined the Confederate 


army. Probably thirty years old, of medium size, compactly 
built; his eyes and hair were black, and, withal, he was a 
handsome man. He became quartermaster of the Fourth 
Kentucky, and there was no better quartermaster in the 
Confederacy. The duties of that office were arduous, and 
the manner of keeping the books was so complicated, that 
none but an educated business man could fill the office 
efficiently. He possessed many other accomplishments, 
among them being that of drawing maps of the country 
where the troops were operating. 

Although the quartermaster was not expected to go into 
battle, the gallant captain was frequently found in the " thick- 
est of the fray," notably, in the desperate battle at Saltville, 
where he recklessly and conspicuously rode up and down the 
lines, seemingly determined to get himself killed. 

Captain Geo. T. Campbell, 
The commissary of the Fourth Kentucky, was one of the 
most popular officers in the regiment. He was a quiet, 
sensible man, of wide information, kind of heart, and ever 
on the alert to see that his department had sufficient 
supplies to satisfy the always hungry boys. He was more 
advanced in years than the majority of the officers and men, 
and was noted for his familiarity with the scriptures, from 
which he quoted copiously and continuously, always apropos 
to the conversation or subject of discussion. He was 
fortunate in his selection of a staff of assistants in his depart- 
ment: A. D. Caplinger, James F. Caplinger and Jacob 
Yeager ; the latter was commissary sergeant, and upon the 
retirement of Campbell he was promoted to commissary. 

Assistant Surgeon Geo. S. Whipple. 
From Worthville, Ky., kind, gentle, charitable and self- 
sacrificing, was the good Samaritan of the Fourth Kentucky 
Regiment, the well-beloved and most excellent physician. 
Physically, he was a rather small man, with, however, a 
sturdy, well-knit frame, capable of much endurance. His 





pleasing, sympathetic manner made the men instinctively turn 
to him, not only when they were sick, but also when 
depressed in mind, by reason of home-sickness, the loss of a 
comrade or the receiving of sad news from the far-away 
Kentucky home. He was approachable at all times, and 
ever ready to minister to either the body or a mind diseased. 
Medicines were scarce in the Confederacy, and the good 
doctor's chest was generally nearly empty, but, somehow, he 
always had a " balm in Gilead. " There were other physicians 
— Doctor Scott, Doctor L. I/. Gregory, Doctor Bob Smith 
and Doctor Ireland, all of them capable and faithful, com- 
manding the respect and confidence of the men, but they 
were not endowed with that sympathetic magnetism which 
characterized Doctor Whipple. 

Captain Warren Montfort. 

" Of chivalry the flower and pride, 
The arm in battle bold." 

A young and handsome officer was Captain Warren Mont- 
fort ; generous, and possessing many accomplishments, his 
banner was festooned with the emblems of every knightly 
virtue. He commanded Company D, Sixth Confederate 
Battalion, and went with Jessee, under Morgan's orders, to 
make a demonstration against Maysville, in June, 1864, and 
returned to the main command in time, personally, to awaken 
General Morgan on the fateful Sunday morning at Cynthiana. 
Captain Montfort was in command of Morgan's rear guard, 
retreating from Cynthiana, and at Clayvillage commended 
himself to all honest soldiers by making the " bummers " 
unload their ill-gotten spoils — bolts of calico, muslin, milli- 
nery, jewelry, etc. By reason of the captain's many accom- 
plishments he held various positions in the army. At the 
battle of Bulls Gap, he was on the staff of General John C. 
Breckinridge, when that famous general went into the fight 
at the head of his troops. At Wytheville, Captain Montfort 
was in the advance of Morgan's charge on Averill. At Bulls 
Gap, he captured papers belonging to the Federal general, 
Gillem, which substantiated beyond a doubt the fact that 


General Morgan had been murdered at Greenville. Being a 
prisoner on Johnson's Island, he became very sick and much 
emaciated. The surgeon asked him, " Do you want to 
die ? " Montfort replied, " Not unless I have to." He was 
exchanged, and vicissitudes of war brought a certain chaplain 
into the gallant captain's hands, a prisoner. The chaplain 
was an acquaintance the captain had made when he was 
himself a prisoner. Captain Montfort took him to General 
Morgan, and said : " General Morgan, I have a man here 
who would make a most excellent chaplain." Morgan court- 
eously acknowledged the introduction and smilingly said r 
" Sir, my men don't pray very much, but I heartily welcome 
you, and you are at liberty to make them pray, if you can." 


" I have song of war for knight, 
I,ay of love for lady bright." 

A young, dashing officer, of medium height, rotund in 
form, long, curling brown hair, always jovial, extremely 
handsome, there was much about Colonel Clarence Prentice 
that made him an attractive and entertaining personage. 
Always bold, he was often rash, seldom prudent. A younger 
son of Geo. D. Prentice, the famous editor of the Louisville 
Journal, he possessed much of the versatility of his illustrious 
sire. Although his father espoused the Union cause, and 
wielded his mighty pen ridiculing and anathematizing the 
" seceders," Clarence and his brother, Courtland, wereardent 
Southrons, and promptly enlisted under " the strange new 
flag," the starry cross of Dixie. Courtland, a promising 
young captain of cavalry, under Colonel Basil Duke, was 
killed at Augusta, Ky., September 18, 1862. Clarence, com- 
manding a battalion of cavalry, was for a time attached to 
Giltner's brigade. He had been a free lance, a jolly youth 
about the city of Louisville, and he was the same when " a 
soldier in gray." His battalion was difficult to discipline, 
being made up of men from no particular section of the 
country — many of them being wild, " tough " characters, and 
not a few were deserters from the Federal army. Many 


amusing stories were told of the rollicking times the young 
colonel had with his soldiers, whom he called by their names. 
Tom, Dick, Harry, etc., and of the summary manner in 
which he often subdued their mutinous spirits. Notwith- 
standing his wild revels and familiarity with his men, thev 
were afraid of him and of the gleam of his ever-ready pistol. 
which promptly flashed in the air when there were signs of 
insubordination or overt acts of mutiny Prentice, as I have 
intimated, was fond of fun. He had his men trained to do 
the "circus act,'' in many ways. Upon one occasion it 
became my duty to direct Colonel Prentice to a camping 
ground. Taking position to intercept him, I awaited his 
coming. He soon appeared, jauntily riding at the head of 
his column. In reply to the order I communicated to him. 
he said, '' All right, my boy ! " and invited me to ride with 
him to the encampment. After a few off-hand pleasantries. 
he asked if I would like to hear his ,; yahoos " give a yell. 
Giving an affirmative answer I was surprised to see him 
simply lift his gold braided cap from his head ; he neither 
turned around, nor gave a word of command, but instantly 
there arose such a terrific and prolonged yell, running from 
front to rear, that would have made a Comanche Indian 
green with envy and hang his head in shame. Ever}" 
"yahoo" seemed to keep his eyes on that little cap. and 
when Prentice gracefully lifted it. every fellow knew just 
what to do. Prentice was the handiest man with a pistol I 
ever saw. I have seen him throw a chip into the air and hit 
it before it fell to the earth. Again, he would designate two 
small objects, on either side of the road, almost opposite each 
other, and then, at a gallop, he would almost invariably put 
a ball into both objects as his horse swept by them. He fre- 
quently visited brigade headquarters . where he was always 
welcome, and read original poetry, usually humorous, written 
in regard to some army incident, sang gay ditties and played 
the violin, of which instrument he was a master. Upon one 
occasion he read a number of verses, suggested to him by 
fmding a soldier, during an inconsequential skirmish, safely 
ensconced behind a small log hut, some distance behind the 
line, raoidlv loading and firing his gun "straight un in the 


air." Prentice demanded an explanation, to which the 
soldier excitedly replied: "Oh, colonel, I want to let 'em 
know I'm here ! " Each stanza read by the colonel closed 
with the quotation : " I'm letting 'em know I'm here." 

It was Colonel Clarence Prentice who first introduced the 
famous giant, Baby Bates, to civilization. He had found 
Bates in the Kentucky mountains, " a youth to fortune and 
to fame unknown." The giant accompanied us on Morgan's 
last raid in Kentucky, and at the close of the war Prentice 
took him to Louisville and made a " show " of him, exhibit- 
ing him in the saloons and to "the boys about town." 
Returning to Louisville, during the summer after the war, I 
frequently saw Prentice and Bates perambulating the streets, 
sometimes going from " groceree to groceri," a Lilliputian 
and a Brobdingnaggian. 



Lieutenant Archie W. Smith — Recruiting in Kentucky— Gen- 
eral Order No. 38 — Execution of Corbin and McGraw — 
lleutenant-coi,onei, george m. jessee— general s. b. buck- 


Lieutenant Archie W. Smith. 

EARI/Y in 1863 there came an order from Richmond that 
each Kentucky regiment should send one commis- 
sioned officer, one non-commissioned officer and two enlisted 
men into Kentucky on a recruiting expedition. In obedience 
to that order Lieutenant Archie W Smith, of Company E, 
Fourth Kentucky Cavalry ; Sergeant Will Helm, of Company 
H, and privates Wm. J. Corbin and T. J. McGraw, of Com- 
pany D, were selected for that perilous duty. Upon reaching 
Central Kentucky the party separated, intending to go to the 
vicinity of their respective homes, as they thought they 
could operate more successfully where they were known. 
The entire party was captured. When it is remembered 
that Burnside's infamous order No. 38 had been promul- 
gated, and was being cruelly and relentlessly enforced, the 
reader will realize that a great danger threatened the brave 
and adventuresome Kentuckians, when captured within 
Federal lines. General Burbridge, commanding in Ken- 
tucky, ordered that poor Corbin and McGraw should be shot 
to death. The order was executed in cold blood. Sergeant 
Helm escaped a like fate by being permitted to take " the 
oath." lieutenant Smith was ordered to prison, but made 
his escape by daringly jumping from a car window. He was 
a man of splendid physique, exceedingly tall, his hair and 
beard of raven blackness — a man easily described and notice- 
able in any assemblage ; hence it would seem almost impos- 
sible that he should succeed in eluding the Federals. 

He never for a moment forgot his mission, and instead of 
taking i( the oath " or endeavoring to slip back to the Con- 


federate lines he bravely, but prudently and intelligently, did 
some of the most successful recruiting work ever done in 
Kentucky. It is not generally known that in the Fourth Ken- 
tucky were eighteen young men from near Franklin, Ind. 
Such, however, was the fact. lieutenant Smith, hearing that 
they desired to enlist under the Confederate banner, adroitly 
managed to conduct them to his rendezvous, at Ray's School 
House, Trimble County, Ky., whence he started southward 
with sixty-four men. His route was through Southern Ken- 
tucky, thence to Sparta and McMinnville, Tenn., and then to 
Abingdon, Va., where he reported to General Wm. Preston. 
When he arrived at the camp of his regiment, inCastlewoods, 
his reception was an ovation. Colonel Pryor, always impul- 
sive, hastily tore a new gold cord band from his hat and 
presented it to lieutenant Smith as a token of appreciation 
of his gallantry and success. 

Lieutenant-Colonel George M. Jessee. 

In the spring of 1862 George M. Jessee, of Henry County, 

recruited a company of one hundred gallant young men from 

the counties of Henry, Carroll and Trimble. After a short 

time spent in drilling and arming his youthful volunteers 

Captain Jessee started with them in an attempt to run the 

gauntlet of Federal troops to reach the Southland. He had 

proceeded to Scott County, when he was joined by another 

company, which had been recruited in Boone County This 

company was officered as follows: Captain Boyd, First 

Lieutenant L- C. Norman and Second Lieutenant Marion 

Corbin. The two companies remained in Scott County 

several days, and then started on the march for Virginia. At 

Mt. Sterling they were attacked by about three hundred 

Federals, commanded by an officer named Brooks. In the 

endeavor to evade the Federals they attempted to pass 

through the town, where they were fired upon by Home 

Guards, who had made a fortress of the court-house — many 

private residences being also occupied by them. While the 

Home Guards were pouring a galling fire into them from the 

buildings the Federal cavalry were pressing them in the rear, 



the result being a running fight, which lasted until late in 
the afternoon, the engagement having begun at sunrise. In 
or near the town four young men, Holmes, Abbott, Beasley 
and Holbrook, were killed and several were wounded. The 
entire command was captured and taken to Winchester. 

Captain Jessee at once made his escape from Federal 
clutches and returned to Henry County, where he recruited 
another company of one hundred and three men, and once 
more started South, going through Shelby and Nelson Coun- 
ties. At JBloomfield, in the latter county, he was joined by 
lieutenant Allston with fifty men recruited in Shelby and 
Oldham Counties. On the next night, while taking supper 
and feeding their horses on the farm of a man named Shelby, 
the little band was attacked by the Federals, and fought them 
all night, losing five men killed and several wounded. 

The enemy having retreated to Danville, Jessee resumed 
his march, reaching Knoxville, Tenn., without further 
serious adventure. At Knoxville Jessee and his men were 
mustered into the Confederate arm}-. 

General B. Kirby Smith having just entered Kentucky 
Captain Jessee was immediately ordered back into the State 
as an escort for a number of prominent Confederate officers 
whom General Smith had left behind. At Big Creek Gap 
Jessee and his followers encountered two Federal regiments, 
commanded by Shelly and Cooper, belonging to the army of 
General George W Morgan, who then held Cumberland 
Gap. In the engagement that ensued Jessee's men were sur- 
rounded, and again he lost his soldiers — more than one 
hundred men, the captain himself escaping with two men. 

Captain Jessee proceeded to Lexington, Ky. , where he 
reported to General Kirby Smith, giving him the first authen- 
tic information of General George W Morgan's evacuation 
of Cumberland Gap. The captain requested General Smith 
to give him a detachment to go to Henry County to regulate 
Provost Marshal George Dickens and a band of soldiers 
under Colonel Robert Morris, who were arresting and intim- 
idating citizens of Southern proclivities. General Smith 
complied by giving Captain Jessee an order to Colonel Max- 
well, commanding a Floridian regiment, stationed at 


Frankfort. Colonel Maxwell being anxious to make a raid 
gladly complied with, the order, and detailing one hundred 
men obtained permission from General Smith to accompany 
Jessee himself. They extended their raid to Bedford, near 
the Ohio River, and upon their return they encountered 
Morris and Dickens at Newcastle, captured Dickens and 
thirty men, one cannon and one hundred and fort}- stands of 
arms — completely routing the Federals. 

Returning to Frankfort, Captain Jessee accompanied the 
army to the Perry ville battlefield, recruited a few more men, 
thirty-five or forty, joined General Humphrey Marshall's 
column and retreated from the State, going to Abingdon, 
Va., where he was soon joined by the men of his other two 
companies, who had been exchanged. When his men were 
reorganized Captain Jessee found himself in command of 
four Kentucky companies, including Captain Rowan's com- 
pany which then joined him. The organization was as fol- 
lows : Company A, Captain W O. Stewart ; Company B, 
Captain L,. C. Norman ; Company C, Captain W Rowan ; 
Company D, Captain Warren Montfort; known as the Third 
Kentucky Battalion. 

Having received from the secretary of Avar authority to 
raise a regiment, and not being able to get into Ken- 
tucky to recruit troops, two companies of Virginians, one 
under Captain Boyd, the other under Captain McFarlane, 
joined Jessee's little battalion, which then became known as 
the Sixth Confederate Battalion. This was in 1863. 

It will be seen in another chapter that, after the battle of 
Cynthiana, Jessee was detached by order of Colonel Giltner 
and directed to remain in Kentucky and rally as many of the 
men, who had been scattered over the State by that disaster, 
as possible and lead them to Virginia. This was a difficult 
task to perform and was never thoroughly accomplished. 
The Confederacy was tottering, in imminent danger of col- 
lapse, and Jessee was far away from base, in a country over- 
run by the enemy. His position was extremely dangerous, 
requiring the most consummate finesse to avoid capture. 
The hair-breadth escapes of Jessee and his men, and the 
thrilling episodes that went to make up their career in Ken- 


tucky, would, of themselves, furnish material for a most 
interesting and romantic chapter of partisan warfare. 

Adjutant-General Edward O. Guerrant pays the following 
tribute to Jessee and his men : 

"Of Colonel Jessee's conduct on the ill-fated field at Cynthiana 
nothing but praise can justly be spoken. His command of Spartans 
was placed on the left wing, by the side of the Fourth Kentucky, and 
with that gallant regiment left the field when valor could no longer 
contend with overwhelming numbers. He was among the last who 
■crossed the river, and everything appearing to be lost, and every one 
inspired with but one idea, that of saving himself, Colonel Jessee 
rallied the remnant of his command and offered an effectual resist- 
ance to the repeated assaults of the enemy made on the rear of our 
broken and flying forces. So soon as the enemy stopped the pursuit, 
Colonel Giltner ordered Colonel Jessee to repair to the counties of 
Henry, Owen, etc., for the purpose of collecting together and leading 
back to the Confederate lines all Confederate soldiers scattered 
throughout said counties, the best time and manner of accomplish- 
ing said object being of course left to the discretion of Colonel Jes- 
see. This order I wrote myself." 

Colonel J. Stoddard Johnston, adjutant-general to Gen- 
eral John C. Breckinridge, says that while Colonel Jessee 
was in Kentucky he was in communication with headquarters 
and in receipt of orders therefrom ; that he not only sent 
out a number of recruits, but all officers sent into Kentucky 
on recruiting or other service were instructed to communicate 
and co-operate with him. Toward the close of the year 1864 
the Confederate Government determined to concentrate all 
its forces for the struggle evidently before them, and to that 
end it was deemed proper to call in all troops on detached 

The following order was sent to Colonel Jessee : 

Headquarters Department Virginia and 
East Tennessee, 

WythevieeE, Va., December 4, 1864. 

To Colonei. George M. Jessee, Commanding, etc., in Kentucky : 

I am directed by Major-General Breckinridge to convey to you 
his orders. He directs that upon receipt of this you will make your 
preparations to return to this department with your command. 
Whatever may be the obstacles to bringing out the men composing 


your command he directs that you report in person with or without 
them at these headquarters on or before February i, 1865. And if 
opportunity offers report by letter prior to that time. 
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. Stoddard Johnston, A. A. G. 

Colonel Johnston says that in obedience to this order 
Colonel Jessee reported in person to General Breckinridge 
before the time specified — the difficulty of bringing troops 
from Kentucky through the mountains to Virginia being 
sufficient to account for his failure to bring his command • 
that Colonel Jessee's report of affairs and of his own opera- 
tions were perfectly satisfactory to General Breckinridge and 
to General Echols, who succeeded him a few days after 
Colonel Jessee's arrival. In fact that the colonel's report was 
so satisfactory that he was ordered back to Kentucky with 
increased authority, and directed to bring back with him, not 
only his own command, but all Confederate soldiers in 

General Echols issued the following order : 

Leave of absence for ten days is granted to Lieutenant-Colonel 
George M. Jessee, Sixth Confederate Battalion, at the expiration of 
which time he will be permitted to pass into Kentucky with ten men 
on business denned in special order No. 35. 

By command of 

Brigadier-General Echols. 
J. Stoddard Johnston, A. A. G. 

At the expiration of his leave of absence Colonel Jessee, 
in obedience to the foregoing order, returned to Kentucky, 
but the war closed almost immediately thereafter, and of 
course he could operate no longer under the terms of the 

Early in the war, and probably at intervals later, a part of 
the organization known as the Sixth Confederate Battalion 
was commanded by Major Allen E- McAfee, a gallant and 
soldierly-looking officer, large and of commanding appear- 
ance. He was a member of the McAfee family famous in 
Kentucky annals, and was captured during one of General 
Morgan's raids — in 1864, I believe. 


General Simon B. Buckner. 

This most accomplished officer, the hero of the battle of 
Fort Donelson, was the immediate predecessor of General 
John H. Morgan in command of the troops in Southwestern 
Virginia and East Tennessee. 

General Buckner's review of the troops, an imposing array 
of infantry, cavalry and artillery, massed at Bull's Gap, I 
shall never forget. 

Sitting upon a noble charger, showily caparisoned, 
General Buckner appeared the model soldier. I never saw a 
more graceful figure on horseback. Erect and handsome, 
the general sat his horse and held the reins exactly as 
prescribed by cavalry tactics and army regulations. The 
stately, elegantly attired general and the regiments and bat- 
talions, with burnished guns and gleaming sabers, passing in 
review before him made up a most attractive pageant. The 
bands played inspiring airs, among them the " Southern 
Marseillaise," and the general gracefully returned the salutes 
of the marching divisions. 

Upon leaving the department for other fields General 
Buckner addressed the following letter to his successor, 
General Morgan : 

Headquarters Department East Tennessee, 

Abingdon, Va., May 2, 1864. 

General : I have been ordered to distant service, and have 
relinquished the command of this department. 

I can not part from my gallant compatriots from Kentucky with- 
out expressing through you my regrets at the separation. Assure 
them that wherever I may be I will watch their career with the deep- 
est interest. 

Though exiled for a time from a land which is so dear to us we 
should not lose sight of the fact that in whatever part of the Confed- 
eracy we may be called upon to serve, every blow which is struck 
tends to strike off the fetters which bind our fair land to Northern 

The day will surely come when those of the gallant band who 
may survive the coming campaign will look upon our beloved State 
enfranchised and happy. 

Say to your troops that I have taken steps which will, I hope, 
very soon supply them with the equipments necessary to their em- 


ciency and comfort. I look to them to furnish an example of 
discipline, as well as of gallantry, under whatever officers they may 
be called upon to obey ; for obedience to our officers is a duty we all 
owe to our country, to our cause, to our State and to those cherished 
ones for whose freedom and happiness we are contending. 

For yourself, general, and for the gallant men under your com- 
mand receive the assurances of the regard of 
Your friend truly, 

S. B. Buckner, Major-General. 

Brigadier-General John H. Morgan, 

Commanding Kentucky Cavalry. 



General John H. Morgan — His Escape from the Ohio 

1 ' O, war ! thou hast thy fierce delight. 
Thy gleams of joy, intensely bright ! 
Such gleams as from thy polished shield 
Fly dazzling o'er the battlefield." 

GENERAL JOHN MORGAN was a magnetic man, of 
pleasing personality, very handsome ; his manner gen- 
ial and gracious, his face was an open book. A dark mus- 
tache drooped over a laughing mouth — his face being lighted 
by an indescribably pleasant, perennial smile. Easily 
approached, all men were his friends. I never saw him 
otherwise than neatly dressed, and he was often elegantly 
attired, always a gentleman. He was the kind of man to be 
at home in a parlor, to grace a lady's boudoir, and a welcome 
addition to any coterie of gentlemen, assembled in any place. 
He always had about him a glittering staff; accomplished 
young men, resplendent in gold lace and fine clothes, gen- 
erally representatives of the best Kentucky families. 

I have a pleasant recollection of the first time I ever met 
General Morgan. Being at his headquarters in quest of his 
adjutant-general, Captain Charles A. Withers, I found the 
general first, reclining in the shade of a tree. He greeted 
me most kindly, made a few pleasant observations and court- 
eously directed me to the adjutant-general's quarters. His 
Chesterfieldian manner captivated me at once, being very 
different from that which characterized many bluff, haughty 
officers with whom I was acquainted. His extreme socia- 
bility won the undying affections of his men. Riding along 
the column, he would talk in a jovial, free and easy way, 
putting his cavaliers in the best of spirits. 

General Morgan was the Marion of the civil war, operat- 
ing, however, on a more extensive scale than did the "Swamp 
Fox " of the Carolinas, and introducing novel tactics of war- 


fare never dreamed of by the Carolina ranger. Morgan and 
his men especially delighted in an opportunity to visit Ken- 
tucky and strike the enemy there. They loved her people 
and her bluegrass fields, 

" Her forests and her valleys fair, 
Her flowers that scent the morning air." 

General John Hunt Morgan was a native of Alabama, 
born at Huntsville, June i, 1825 ; consequently he was about 
thirty-six years old when he entered the Confederate service. 
When he was about four years old his father, Calvin C. 
Morgan, removed to Lexington, Ky., the general's maternal 
grandfather, John W Hunt, being a leading merchant there. 
His father had also been a merchant at Huntsville. There 
were six brothers, of whom the general was the eldest. Cap- 
tain Cal Morgan, Colonel Dick Morgan, Major Charlton 
Morgan, Lieutenant Thomas Morgan and probably another 
younger brother served in the Southern army. 

In the Mexican war General Morgan had been a lieuten- 
ant in Colonel Humphrey Marshall's regiment of cavalry. 

In 1857 he was captain of the Lexington Rifles, noted for 
its drill and efficiency. His company was afterward incor- 
porated into the State guard, and, in September, 1861, Cap- 
tain Morgan eluded the vigilance of the Federals and 
escaped to the Confederate lines with most of his company. 

He became a colonel of cavalry April 4, 1862. In Decem- 
ber, 1862, he was commissioned a brigadier- general. His 
noted raids into Kentucky were made in July, 1862, August, 
September and December of the same year, and in June, 
1864. His great raid through Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio 
was made in July, 1863, resulting in his capture and imprison- 
ment in the Ohio State prison — as infamous an outrage as was 
ever inflicted upon a generous, chivalric soldier. 

Generai, Morgan's Escape from Prison. 

The following graphic account of General Morgan's escape 
from the Ohio penitentiary, after an imprisonment of four 
months, was written by Samuel C. Reid, a Kentuckian, and 


published in a pamphlet at Atlanta, Ga.: " The general owed 
his escape to his fellow-prisoner and officer, Captain Thomas 
H. Hines, then a young man about twenty -three years of age, 
of great nerve, tact, energy and endurance. 

" Merion, the warden, magnifying the importance of his 
station, on the morning of November 3, 1863, so grossly 
insulted Captain Hines that he determined to plan means of 
escape. He was reading Victor Hugo's description in 'L,es 
Miserables' of the subterranean passages of Paris and of the 
wonderful escapes of Jean Valjean. He argued in his mind 
that the dryness of the cells must be owing to air passages 
or ventilators beneath to prevent the moisture from rising, 
and that by removing the cement and brick in the cells they 
might reach the air chamber, and thence escape by under- 
mining the foundation walls. 

" This plan was first communicated to Captain Sam B. 
Taylor (a grandnephew of President Zachary Taylor), who 
was as agile, ingenious and daring as Captain Hines. There 
were difficulties to overcome from the arrangement of the 
cells — five tiers or stories high of solid stonemasonry, six feet 
long, six feet high and three feet wide. General Morgan's 
cell was in the second story, and Hines' immediately beneath. 
With two case knives, which had been sent from the hospital 
with food for some of the sick men, the work was begun 
November 4th in Hines' cell — he assuming the responsibility 
and alone taking the risk of discovery and its consequent 
punishment. With these two men could work at a time — 
relieving each other every hour, and spending four to five 
hours per day in labor. The work progressed steadily — 
Hines keeping strict guard, and by a system of knocks or 
raps upon the cell door, indicating when to begin and when 
to cease work and when to stop work and come out. The 
cement and bricks removed were hidden by the men in their 
beds. The prison guards were always suspicious and watch- 
ful, and some privileged convicts were sometimes set as spies 
to watch the Confederate officers. 

" After digging in each of seven cells a hole eighteen inches 
square through six inches of cement and six layers of brick 
the air chamber was reached, sixty feet long, three wide and 


three high. Thereafter the rubbish was removed to the air 
chamber, while the holes were carefully concealed by their 
beds. But their patient work was scarcely begun. They 
worked thence through twelve feet of solid masonry, fourteen 
feet of fine stone and cement and five feet of graveled earth, 
and on November 26th reached the yard of the penitentiary. 
For the first time General Morgan was now made acquainted 
with the mysterious underground avenues, and was greatly 
surprised and delighted with the work. 

" A consultation in Morgan's cell on the evening of the 
27th determined them to attempt escape that night. The 
weather for some two weeks before had been perfectly clear, 
and for several nights succeeding their escape the ground and 
penitentiary walls were covered by a heavy sleet, which would 
have made it impossible to scale the latter. Late in the 
evening of the 27th light fleecy clouds gathered in the west, 
which with the feeling of the atmosphere betokened a cloudy 
sky and rain. At 9 p. m. a steady rain set in, lasting through 
the night. Thus far well ; but how to scale the outside wall, 
thirty-five feet high ? Besides, several sentinels were on post 
in the yard and two or three vicious dogs were unchained at 
night. Again, General Morgan was to be gotten out of his 
cell in the second story before the turnkey locked all the cell 
doors at 5 o'clock p. m. ' Love laughs at locksmiths,' and so 
did Morgan s men. Calvin Morgan made out of his bed- 
ticking a rope seventy feet long, and out of a small iron 
poker a hook for the end of the rope. At 5 p. M. Colonel 
Dick Morgan went to his brother's cell, while the general was 
locked up in. Dick's, one of the seven on the ground floor. 
Colonel Dick Morgan's personal appearance was much like 
that of the general. General Morgan was allowed the excep- 
tional privilege of a candle to read by after 9 p. m., and the 
turnkey on going his rounds finding Colonel Dick Morgan 
with a book before his face reading mistrusted nothing and 
locked in the wrong prisoner. 

" In the stillness of midnight, when even a whisper could be 
heard, Captain Sam Taylor dropped noiselessly into the air 
chamber, passed under the other six cells and touched the 
occupants as a signal to come forth — each first so shaping his 


bed-clothes as to resemble the sleeping form of a man and 
prevent the guards' suspicions on their two-hourly rounds until 
after daylight. When they emerged from the hole under the 
foundation three sentinels stood within ten feet of them ; but 
the steady rainfall drowned any noise from their footsteps. 
They had gone a few paces toward the wall when one of the 
huge, fierce dogs with a low growl came running to within ten 
feet of them, barked once and then went off. Did the dog 
mistake them for sentinels? or was it not a special provi- 
dence which made him sympathize with escaping rebels? 
They reached in safety the east gate of the wall, a double gate 
thirty feet high, of iron outside, and inside of heavy wooden 
cross-timbers with open spaces. Wrapping a stone in a 
cloth, to prevent noise, and tying to it one end of the rope, 
Taylor threw it over the top of the inside gate, the weight of 
the stone drawing down the rope. Securing the hook to one 
of the timbers, one by one the part}- climbed to the top of 
the gate, and thence to the top of the wall. The rope was 
hauled up, the hook fastened to the iron railing on the main 
wall, and in a few minutes they had descended to the open 
street, within thirty steps of a guard, near a bright gas- 

" The party immediately separated, Morgan and Hines 
going together. By a letter in cipher to a lady friend who 
sometimes loaned books to the prisoners, Hines' ' need of 
money had been supplied — the money being hidden within 
the folds or binding of a book. Morgan wore goggles, 
loaned by a sore-eyed fellow-prisoner, and kept at a distance 
from the gaslight, while Hines went boldly to the ticket 
office and purchased two tickets just as the Cincinnati train, 
at 1:25 A. m., came thundering along. Once in the car with- 
out suspicion they felt equal to any emergency, and by care 
and ingenuity made good their escape to the South. The 
coolness and composure of Captain Hines were wonderful ; he 
spent the evening, from 5 to 9, in reading one of Charles 
Lever's novels, and then slept soundly until aroused by Cap- 
tain Taylor at midnight. The escaping party was composed 
of General Morgan, Sam Taylor, Thomas Hines, Gustavus 
S. McGee, Ralph Sheldon, Jacob C. Bennett and James D. 



General Morgan Defeats Averill — Major Parker Killed, 

May io, 1864. 

IN the spring of 1864, General Morgan was near Abingdon, 
Va. , reorganizing his command, which had been in con- 
fusion and scattered since the raid through Kentucky, 
Indiana and Ohio. As usual, his mind was on Kentucky, 
and he was longing to once more lead his cavaliers to their 
old Kentucky homes. While in the midst of preparations 
for the long ride into Kentucky, his plans were temporarily 
frustrated by Hunter's raid upon Lynchburg. General 
Averill, having been detached from Hunter's column, marched 
into Southwestern Virginia, his objective point being presum- 
ably the Saltworks. 

General Morgan, not being disposed to await Averill's 
coming, determined to march against him to check his 
advance, and, if possible, drive him back. Giltner's brigade 
had been assigned to Morgan's division, composing the 
larger part of it. The bugles sounded and the command 
was soon making a rapid march to find the invading Feder- 
als. Striking the main valley turnpike at a point between 
Glade Spring and Marion, and not knowing just when or 
where we should meet Averill's cavalry, the command 
formed fours and marched toward Wytheville. Passing 
through that town, cheered by the ladies, who waved hand- 
kerchiefs and flags and smiled encouragingly, we met the 
enemy May 10th, some distance beyond, at Crockett's farm, 
I think, and immediately charged them, the Federals soon 
breaking, and Morgan keeping up with them and charging 
every time they made an attempt to give battle. It was a 
running fight, lasting until sunset. On account of the 
peculiar character of the fight, the enemy being "on the 
run " nearly all the time, the casualties were neither very 
numerous or sanguinary on either side. 

This was General Morgan's first fight after his escape 


from prison, and the signal victory had a wonderfully inspir- 
ing effect on the men and increased their longing desire for 
the contemplated trip to Kentucky. Our elation, however, 
was much subdued by the death of Major Parker, of the 
Fourth Kentucky, who fell, between 3 and 5 o'clock, 
struck by a spent ball immediately over the heart, and died 
almost instantly, his last words being, " Charge them, my 
brave boys ! " There were numerous acts of heroism per- 
formed, which I shall not stop here to record. The dashing 
impetuosity of Morgan's command and the promptness of the 
attack were an unexpected shock to the surprised Federals, 
and they were pressed so closely that they had no chance 
to recover from their " nervousness." Averill's march had 
been characterized by much of the " pomp and circumstance 
of war," but he returned whence he came, crestfallen, with 
" drooping banners all tattered and torn." 



Morgan's Last Ride Into Kentucky, June, 1864— Preparations 
for the Trip — Organization — The March to Mt. Sterling 
—The First Battle There. 

" Riding to battle on battle day — 

Why, a soldier is something more than a king ! 
But after the battle? The riding away ? 
Ah, the riding away is another thing !" 

WHILE encamped near Abingdon, Va., during the 
sunny days of May, 1864, General Morgan and his 
men were in good humor. Like Napoleon on the morn of 
Waterloo the general joked with his cavaliers, who hailed 
with delight and loud acclaim the dawn of the first day of 
the march to Kentucky — the Promised Land, a Canaan flow- 
ing with milk and honey. 

We were living on an occasional half ration of rice and 
" blue beef," and a change of any kind would be welcome. 
But a trip to Kentucky ! Nothing could be more to our 
liking. There was, of course, much speculation as to what 
parts of the State we should visit, and as, to whether we should 
have an opportunity of seeing loved ones at home, to whom 
we were then almost strangers. The dangers and privations 
that would necessarily attend the march were not con- 

" Though the future was veiled, 
And its fortunes unknown, 
We impatiently waited 
Till the bugle was blown." 

Our force was organized into three brigades, as follows : 
First Brigade — Colonel H. L. Giltner; Second Brigade — 
Colonel D. Howard Smith ; Third Brigade — Colonel Robert 

Giltner's brigade was composed of the Fourth Kentucky 
Cavalry, Colonel Tandy Pryor; Tenth Kentucky Cavalry 
Battalion, Colonel Trimble ; First Kentucky Mounted Rifles 



Battalion (Colonel Zeke Clay's), now commanded by Major 
Holliday; Second Kentucky Mounted Rifles Battalion, 
Colonel Tom Johnson ; Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles 
Battalion, Major Tom Chenoweth; Sixth Confederate Bat- 
talion, Ivieutenant-Colonel George Jessee ; aggregating about 
nine hundred and seventy-five men. 

Colonel D. Howard Smith's brigade consisted of the First, 
Second and Third Battalions of cavalry, commanded by 
Colonels Bowles, Kirkpatrick and Cassell, respectively, num- 
bering about five hundred men. 

Colonel Robert Martin's brigade, dismounted men, was 
divided into First and Second Battalions, commanded by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Alston and Major Diamond, num- 
bering between eight hundred and one thousand men. 

All being ready we bade good-bye to Old Virginia, and 

" Cheer, boys, cheer, we'll march away to battle ; 
Cheer, boys, cheer, for our sweethearts and our wives," 

we merrily and jauntily set our faces toward the " old Ken- 
tucky home far away." 

In passing through the gap in the mountains, separating 
Virginia from Kentucky, we brushed away a small force of 
Federals, on duty there, and proceeded on a necessarily slow 
and wearisome march toward Mt. Sterling, our first objective 

To better understand subsequent events I must state that 
the Federal general, Burbfidge, with a strong force was at 
that very time en route to Virginia, his objective point being 
probably the Saltworks. He was marching on another road, 
however, nearly parallel with our route. I am unaware that 
either commander was advised of the contemplated move- 
ments of the other. Be that as it may we marched 
uninterruptedly to Mt. Sterling, reaching that place June 8, 

"When within about twelve miles of Mt. ^Sterling, about 
midnight, we left the State Road, turning to the right, and 
followed a by-path through a woodland dark as Erebus. We 
knew that there was a Federal force in or near the town, and 
General Morgan, who nearly always, sometimes to his sor- 


row, went right at any obstruction in his front, was anxious 
to attack the enemy without any unnecessary delay. It 
would not do, however, to " run in on them " in the dark, 
especially as we were not certain of their location. Halted 
in column on that balmy summer morning, in the immediate 
vicinity of the enemy, the men talking sotto voce, quietly 
awaiting daylight, the suspense was oppressive. There was 
not a particle of noise, except the occasional stamping or 
whimpering of a restless charger, the twittering of birds that 
had just awakened, but had not left their " leafy bowers," and 
the crowing of happy chanticleers heralding the coming day. 
Not waiting for the " foot cavalry," which was far in the 
rear, General Morgan, at daylight, quietly led the column for- 
ward, across the farm of Mack Everett, a brother of the 
noted Confederate free-lance, Captain Pete Everett. Just as 
we reached the gate, immediately to the right of Everett's 
residence, he came out into the yard, bare-headed and 
clothed in nothing more than an immaculately white shirt, 
black broadcloth trousers and slippers, and looking the 
picture of surprise, he asked : ' ' Where in the world did you 
all come from?" In answer to the query, "Where are the 
Yanks?" he jerked his thumb over his shoulder and said, 
"Oh, they are right over there ; " which meant that the enemy 
were only shut out from our view by a low ridge in the roll- 
ing bluegrass surface, and that we were in close proximity to 
them. General Morgan ordered Colonel Tom Johnson to 
hasten into Mt. Sterling and to take possession of all roads 
leading out of it, in order to prevent the escape of any of the 
Federals. There were two Federal camps, and when we 
charged, Major Holliday, with Clay's battalion, made short 
work with the smaller one, on our right, which had opened a 
spirited fire on us. He captured the most of them, probably 
seventy-five or one hundred. The camp between us and 
town was more stubbornly defended by two hundred or more 
men. They were first attacked by Colonel Trimble, who 
fought them gallantly until reinforced by a battalion of the 
Second Brigade, there being but three battalions of Giltner's 
brigade present. Jessee and Chenoweth had been sent away 
on detached duty, and fifty picked men from the Fourth 


Kentucky, under Captains Bart Jenkins and James T. 
Willis, had gone to Frankfort. The enemy were driven 
quickly into the town, where the Fourth Kentucky, dis- 
mounted, charged them. They poured a galling fire into our 
,ranks from the houses in which they had taken refuge. Cap- 
tain Swango, of the Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles, was 
killed by a shot from Doctor Drake's house, and Captain 
Moore, of the same battalion, was killed by a shot from a 
house near the bank. Colonel Johnson ordered Drake's house 
to be burned, but the order was countermanded by Colonel 
Pryor, to whom the enemy surrendered. This was the third 
time the town of Mt. Sterling had been converted into a 
fortress and Confederates shot down from the houses. It 
was probably the meanest town to the Confederate soldier 
in the State. It was here that Henry Abbott and young 
Holmes, of Trimble County, and other brave youths, under 
Captain Jessee, had been shot down from houses earlier in 
the war. Retributive justice came later, when Captain Pete 
Everett entered it at night and burned the court-house and 
other buildings. 

Captain Jack Harris and Jefferson Harris of Trimble's bat- 
talion, I think, were shot ; the first through both arms and 
the latter mortally wounded, shot through the head. Colonel 
Johnson's and Lieutenant Jordan's horses were shot from 
under them. The capture was complete by 6 A. m., and 
Giltner's brigade, or a part of it, took possession of the 
enemy's tents. The Federals lost about ten killed, the usual 
proportion wounded, and about two hundred and seventy- 
one prisoners. We captured also the camp equipage of Bur- 
bridge's absent troopers, consisting of tents, quartermaster 
and commissary stores and a lot of broken down cavalry 

A number of wagons were sent back to haul up the weary, 
footsore men of Martin's dismounted brigade, all of whom 
arrived in the vicinity of Mt. Sterling in the evening. 

The captured Federals belonged to various Ohio and Ken- 
tucky regiments, gone with Burbridge. The capture was a 
veritable bonanza for our boys, who, being ravenously 
hungry, immediately and without ceremony sat themselves 


down to the banquet prepared by the Federals. However,, 
we had called rather early, and our hosts not having had 
time to serve a breakfast commensurate with our voracious 
appetites, we supplemented the " spread " by appropriating 
to our own use and benefit their liberal stores of coffee — 
thirty sacks — sugar, flour, crackers, meat, etc., and proceeded 
to do some cooking ourselves. In the tents we found a 
number of officer's trunks filled with " biled shirts," fine 
clothing, etc. In common with others, I found a trunk, and 
without any conscientious scruples jumped upon it with 
both feet and smashed the top into smithereens. That was 
the only way to get into it, and of course I was bound to 
" get there." The owner had the key in his pocket and was 
probably miles away with General Burbridge. The officer 
who owned that trunk must have been a dandy, a gentleman 
of exquisite fancy. I forthwith discarded my "old clothes " 
and " dressed up " in the elegant habiliments found in the 
trunk, and, as luck would have it, they fitted me to a t-y ty. 

A part of Giltner's brigade remained at Mt. Sterling all 
day and until the next morning. This was the first mistake 
made in a campaign singularly fraught with a series of signal 
victories and defeats. True, we were handicapped by the 
necessarily slow movements of the dismounted men, who 
were an incubus not to be shaken off. General Burbridge 
was behind and likely to fall upon us at any time. We ought 
to have been moving all the while we were lying supinely 
on our backs that day and night at Mt. Sterling. 

The situation was as follows : General Morgan had taken 
the Second Brigade and gone toward Lexington ; Chenoweth, 
with the Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles, had gone to Paris 
and Cynthiana ; Jessee, with the Sixth Confederate, had gone 
with Captain Pete Everett to Maysville ; Captains Jenkins 
and Willis had gone to Frankfort ; Captain Jackson, with 
fifty men, had gone on the road between Mt. Sterling and 
Paris, and Captain Lawrence Jones, with the advance guard, 
was scouting north and east of Lexington, destroying railway 
bridges, telegraph lines, etc. Of Giltner's brigade left at Mt. 
Sterling, there were only the Tenth Kentucky Cavalry, 
Fourth Kentucky, First Kentucky Mounted Rifles and Sec- 


■ond Kentucky Mounted Rifles, about seven hundred and 
eighty-nine men ; and these were further decreased by heavy 
guards for the prisoners, pickets, scouts, etc. 

When night came we lay quietly down to sleep in the 
tents captured in the morning, the dismounted men being in 
bivouac some distance in our rear. It was the calm before 
the storm. We slept soundly through the night, indifferent 
to danger and oblivious of the fact that Burbridge, making a 
forced march, was even then thundering along in our rear, 
eager to surprise and attack our sleeping troopers, the same 
as we had surprised the unsuspecting Federals on the 
previous morning. 



The Second Battle at Mt. Sterling. 

" At the sound of the bugle, 
Each comrade shall spring 
Like an arrow released 

From the strain of the string." 

AT the dawning of daylight, June gth, the enemy, unan- 
nounced, charged into our camp. The morning was 
rainy and somewhat stormy. My own experience was 
similar to that of others. I was sleeping soundly and did 
not hear " war's alarm " until Campbell Ross, of the Fourth 
Kentucky, hurriedly passing my tent called to me, saying, 
the camp was full of Yankees. Poor fellow ! he was killed 
shortly afterward. The bullets were whizzing through my 
tent, and sooner than I can tell it, I was on my horse, riding 
like the wind toward a line being formed by Colonel Pryor, 
who was galloping hither and thither, his clarion voice giving 
sharp, decisive commands. The charging enemy, only a few 
rods distant, kept up such a lively fusillade that I was 
admonished to lie flat down on my horse, in that way hoping 
to escape to Colonel Pryor's line. A number of the boys 
had already been captured, some of them before being able 
to mount their horses. Brainerd Bayless was among the 
captured ; also Thos. J. McElrath and Frank Darling. 
Nearly all of us lost our " baggage," which, however, did 
not amount to much. 

General Burbridge, hearing that we were in Kentucky, had 
countermarched at Prestonburg and, making a forced march 
with about three thousand men, was closely following 
Lieutenant-Colonel Brent, who commanded our division rear 
guard. Strange to say, Colonel Brent was unaware of the 
fact. He encamped his men within three hundred yards of 
the dismounted men and posted pickets on foot, not more 
than two hundred yards in the rear. 

Burbridge, taking advantage of our fancied security and 
the rain, charged into Colonel Martin's camp, killing and 


capturing many soldiers before they awoke. Colonel Martin, 
a most daring and gallant young officer, succeeded in rallying 
about three hundred men, and in turn, charging the enemy, 
captured and cut down their one piece of artillery and drove 
the Federals from the field. They dismounted and returned 
in overwhelming numbers, and Martin was forced to fall back 
through the town. Lieutenant Guy Flusser, of the Fourth 
Kentucky, a proud and gallant Louisville boy, and Lieutenant 
"Waller Bullock were among the many killed. Colonel Martin 
had two horses shot from under him, and was himself shot 
in the foot. 

As before stated, the enemy having run over Brent and 
forced Martin through the town charged into our camp. 
The Fourth Kentucky held them in check, while the other 
battalions were being formed and the prisoners gotten out 
of the way. The brigade then moved around the town to 
form a junction with Colonel Martin who was on the Lexing- 
ton Pike. We found Martin in a towering rage at the turn 
affairs had taken. He had with him about three hundred 
and fifty men, the remnant of the gallant dismounted brigade, 
which had been almost annihilated through the inexcusable 
negligence of somebody. 

The two colonels, Giltner and Martin, determined to fight 
Burbridge on the Lexington Pike, although we had not more 
than one thousand effective men present, General Morgan 
having gone to Lexington with the Second Brigade the day 

Colonel Martin was to take his dismounted men, move 
around to the right on the Ticktown Pike, and if possible 
push the enemy into town by that road. Johnson's battalion 
was sent with Martin to scout and flank for him. This left 
with Giltner the Fourth Kentucky, Tenth Kentucky Cavalry 
and First Battalion Mounted Rifles, under Pryor, Trimble 
and Holliday respectively. 

About 9 A.M. these three battalions were formed in line of 
battle, and then advanced upon the enemy, who were formed 
between them and the town. At the first report of musketry 
on the right, indicating that Martin had struck the enemy, 
our line, with the customary yell, charged, and after a hot 


fight drove the enemy into the town, where they made forts 
of the houses, Mt. Sterling once more becoming a city of 
refuge for Federals. The}- poured a galling fire into our 
ranks, and having no artillery we were unable to dislodge 
them. Had it been possible we would have burned them 
out. Our men, behind a fence and small saplings, their only 
cover, stood and dared them to come out of the houses. But 
they declined the invitation ; comparatively safe, they kept 
up an unremitting fire, our men dropping rapidly. Company 
A, of the Fourth Kentucky, being especially exposed, seemed 
in danger of being annihilated, nearly half the company fall- 
ing within a few minutes. Captain Adcock's Company E 
suffered nearly as much ; in fact, it was terribly hot all along 
the lines. Our command held that position for at least a half 
hour, while waiting for Martin to turn the enemy's flank. 
Finally being convinced that Martin had been unable to 
drive the enemy, our line fell back to the horses. In this 
short engagement the Fourth Kentucky had fifty-two men 
killed and wounded, most of them shot from houses. Cap- 
tain Dick Gathright was severely wounded at the head of his 
company. Hugh Lamaster, John Hall and "Squire "Camp- 
bell were among the killed, Billy Bohon was captured. 

The enemy did not even come out of the houses to follow 
us. We moved along on the Lexington Pike and about four 
miles out we found Colonel Martin who had lost another one 
hundred men in an unsuccessful attempt to drive a largely 
superior force on the Ticktown Pike. 

Thus finding we were needlessly and uselessly losing our 
gallant men, we left the Federals in their forts in the town, 
conscious, however, that they would be a menace to our rear 
while we should continue our march to Lexington. There 
is no denying the fact, we were badly " used up " on the sec- 
ond day at Mt. Sterling. The surprise was complete and 
our losses great. In the early morning the situation was 
depressing, tending to demoralization ; but the phenomenally 
short time it took the troops to recover, get into line and 
coolly go into battle, challenged the respect and admiration 
of even the foe. Ordinary troops would probably have sur- 
rendered without firing a gun. 


Moving on toward Winchester and Lexington, we had 
marched probably seven or eight miles when we met Gen- 
eral Morgan and the Second Brigade hurrying back from 
Lexington to our relief. The general proposed to return to 
Mt. Sterling and fight Burbridge again. Colonels Giltner 
and Martin, after relating their experience and describing the 
situation, convinced him, however, that he would be risking 
too much in attempting to fight largely superior numbers, 
barricaded in a town, especially as he had no artillery with 
which to dislodge them from the houses. 




Winchester — Lexington — Fort Clay — Buggies and Carriages 
for Ambulances — Obtaining Horses — A Generous and Hos- 
pitable Bluegrass Family. 

MOVING on to Winchester the brigade halted about a 
mile beyond the town, the horses were fed and the 
troops rested probably an hour. General Morgan with the 
Second Brigade went on to Lexington, starting just before 
dark. The dismounted men had all been brought along, 
some riding "behind" their more fortunate comrades, while 
many had obtained horses en route. Thoroughly under- 
standing their business and being in the bluegrass country — 
a land abounding in horses of royal pedigree, the " foot 
cavalry " mounted themselves in a surprisingly short time. 
We were encumbered, however, with the prisoners, taken on 
the first day at Mt. Sterling, and a large number of wounded 
men who were unable to ride their horses. It became neces- 
sary to "borrow" a number of buggies and carriages to 
serve in lieu of ambulances. It was a novel sight to see 
numerous handsome vehicles in column with veteran cavalry- 
men. We " borrowed " horses and buggies, day and night, 
all along the route, a number of the wounded boys enduring 
with heroic fortitude the agony of horseback riding until 
" ambulances " could be secured for them. The cavalier nearly 
always looks upon the brighter side of a picture, and there 
was many a jolly laugh and witty remark at the ludicrous 
picture of the dusty, battle-scarred and bleeding veterans 
lolling upon the rich cushions of some bluegrass belle's 
fine carriage. It must not be supposed, however, that all 
those buggies and carriages were taken vi et armis or at the 
point of the pistol. Nothing of the kind. With rare excep- 
tions they were voluntarily tendered or willingly and 
generously presented to us upon receiving a mere intimation 
of the extremity to which our wounded boys were reduced. 
Proceeding from Winchester toward Lexington, when within 


six or seven miles of the latter city, the sky became illumined 
by the light of burning Federal stables and depots, which 
General Morgan had caused to be set on fire that he might 
see how to fight and also probably to frighten the enemy. 
We arrived in the suburbs of Lexington about daylight, 
where we found the horses of the Second Brigade, the men 
being engaged in skirmishing through the city and driving 
the enemy into Fort Clay on the other side, the Federals 
making little resistance. Cannon balls from Fort Clay 
occasionally ricochetted through the streets. We were 
informed that there were three hundred white soldiers and 
about five hundred negro troops in and near the fort. 

General Morgan concluded it was not worth the necessary 
sacrifice of his men to storm Fort Clay. Consequently Gilt- 
ner's brigade was ordered to flank the city, which was done 
by passing through back streets and along the outskirts. 
While making this movement the Federals cannonaded us 
from the fort ; the balls, however, shrieked harmlessly over 
our heads. It was amusing to see the column of Federal 
prisoners, on foot, dodging and zigzagging to escape the 
hurtling cannon balls. It was unkind in the garrison at 
Fort Clay to bombard and frighten their brothers in blue. 

We soon struck the Georgetown Turnpike, behind Fort 
Clay, and found a part of the Second Brigade already there. 
With Giltner's brigade in advance the division moved on 
to Georgetown, where it went into camp. On this march, 
needing a horse, I took two or three comrades, who also 
wanted to " trade " horses, and leaving the turnpike we wan- 
dered through the pastures until we were nearly a mile from 
the road. We came upon an elegant mansion, inhabited by 
a wealthy and staunch Southern family, who welcomed us 
most kindly. The gentlemanly lord of the manor told us 
that in a distant pasture of his demesne, in an old stable, we 
would find several fine horses which he had hidden from the 
Federals. He said we were welcome to the horses, but that 
it would be dangerous for him to accompany us to the iso- 
lated stable, as, if discovered, he would be sent to a Federal 
prison for aiding and abetting Morgan's men. 

We found the horses, and I secured a beautifully gaited 


animal, which I rode until the close of the war. Returning 
to the house we were invited to dinner, and although it was a 
risk, our column having gone beyond, toward Georgetown, 
we accepted the invitation. When we had entered that ele- 
gant home and found ourselves in the presence of several 
young ladies my first thought was one of pride in my fine 
clothes, taken from the Federal officer's trunk at Mt. Sterling. 
One of the ladies, Miss Maria Bauman, kindly promised to 
write a letter to my home people, living on the banks of la 
belle river, within the enemy's lines. After the war had 
closed I found that she had written the letter as promised, 
describing my condition, appearance, etc. I have ever since 
cherished the memory of that gracious lady, but I have never 
seen her since that day — when on the march from Lexington 
to Georgetown. 

Two of the Fourth Kentucky boys were captured on that 
march while scouting for horses and other things — Wm. H. 
Bradley and Fletcher Murphy. 



Georgetown — Demonstration Toward Frankfort — The 
March to Cynthiana. 

AT Georgetown the good Southern people generously- 
supplied our wants, and our soldiers were bountifully 
fed. General Morgan established his headquarters at the 
principal hotel. Unfortunately many of the officers and men 
were " treated" too liberally to bluegrass whisky, which 
affected them disgracefully. 

The streets were full of ladies, negroes and Confederate 
cavalrymen, and I regret to record the fact that while we 
were partaking of the generous hospitality of the town some 
of the soldiers were pillaging it. 

A number of young ladies from a neighboring seminary 
came to take a look at the rebels, but I did not think we 
presented a very creditable appearance — at that time. 

About 2 o'clock in the afternoon we moved out on the 
Frankfort Road, Giltner's brigade in advance. After march- 
ing a few miles in the direction of the capital we were halted, 
and General Morgan called a council of war. Famous 
" Uncle " Ben Robertson, chief guide, had much to say in the 
council. The consultation resulted in a countermarch to 

I omitted to mention in the proper place that Major Cheno- 
weth had rejoined the column at Winchester. Captain Bart 
Jenkins was recalled from Frankfort, and the command then 
moved out upon the Cynthiana and Paris turnpike. 

General Morgan had changed his plans. The route now 
determined upon was via Cynthiana, Augusta and Maysville, 
thence to Big Sandy River, thence to Virginia. The change 
of route was made because of superior forces, understood to 
be at Frankfort, Danville, Camp Nelson, etc. 

We marched all the afternoon and all night, the Second 
Brigade in front, thrown there by the reversal of our line of 
march. The prisoners were still in charge of the First 


Brigade, Giltner's, and impeded our march very much, as we 
had to march slowly behind them — they being on foot. 

At Newtown we took the straight road for Cynthiana. 
Adopting his usual tactics General Morgan sent a detach- 
ment to make a demonstration toward Lexington to mystify 
the Federals. Occasionally there came a false alarm, that 
the enemy was pressing our rear. A battalion would form 
to check the supposed attack. Then would come an order 
to "close up." Thus we passed the night — weary, sleepy 
and going, going, going, always going. 

At Leesburg we were told that there were about five hun- 
dred Federals at Cynthiana, and that the trains were bringing 

During the temporary halt, before daylight, nearly every 
man was asleep. With the exception of the vedettes and 
advanced guard the silent horsemen dismounted and sank 
upon the ground, with their small arms buckled around them 
and their guns in hand, and fell asleep sooner than if they 
had been in downy beds at home. Blessed sleep ! To 
illustrate how delirious a man may become when for days 
and nights, in succession, he has been deprived of " Nature's 
sweet restorer," I here give my experience— that of others 
being similar. On long raids, such as the one of which I 
am now writing, a cavalryman sleeps much in his saddle, but it 
is a fitful, broken, unsatisfactory sleep. During the march 
on that June night I became so desperate as to seriously 
think of withdrawing from the column to lie down by the 
road-side — being willing to risk capture, perhaps death, for 
the sake of obtaining a brief, uninterrupted hour of blessed 
sleep. At lucid intervals, however, I resorted to all manner 
of expedients to keep awake. 

When we had halted that morning I hitched my horse 
beside that of Colonel Pryor, and immediately sank into 
oblivion ; but within fifteen minutes I was on my feet, think- 
ing that the column was moving. In a state of semi- 
unconsciousness I wandered about in search of my horse, 
finally finding myself in the midst of the train of buggies and 
carriages containing the wounded. I then " pulled myself 
together," and for the first time realized that the command was 


not moving at all. I reasoned that by retracing my steps I 
might find Colonel Pryor's horse, and then easily my own. 
In my yet dazed condition it did not occur to me that the 
two horses being together I could find my own as easily as 
that of Colonel Pryor. I finally found them where in my 
demented condition I had gotten up and wandered away 
from them. 



The First Battle at Cynthiana —The Federal Commander 
Killed — Defeat and Capture of the Enemy — The Burning 
of THE Town. 

" And if to-day in blinding mist 
The Southland's tears are shed, 
It is not that her cause was lost, 
But that her sons are dead." 

AT the dawn of the long summer day, Saturday, June nth, 
we arrived at the forks of the road, probably within 
three or four miles of Cynthiana. 

General Morgan promptly made dispositions for battle, 
planning especially for the capture of the Federals in the 
town. He sent the Second Brigade by the right-hand road 
to cross the river above Cynthiana, in order to gain the 
enemy's rear. Giltner's brigade was ordered to move directly 
upon the town. 

When we had reached the hill overlooking the town on the 
west side, we saw that the enemy had received an intimation 
of our coming and were prepared to receive us. They were 
formed behind a stone fence, a most excellent fortification. 
Hearing the guns of the Second Brigade, the signal for 
attack, we flanked the fence and, after a brief skirmish, fought 
principally by Lieutenant H. H. Adcock, commanding Com- 
pany E, Fourth Kentucky, the enemy fled precipitately across 
the bridge, seeking shelter in the town. We captured about 
seventy-five of them before they reached the bridge, and then 
charged into the town. When a town is attacked under such 
circumstances there is no time for dilatory tactics. What- 
ever is to be done, if well done, must be done quickly. The 
Federals made a spirited resistance, but they were soon driven 
into the depot buildings, where a hot fight was waged until 
their commander, Colonel Berry, was killed. They also 
sought refuge in the court-house and other buildings, but the 
Confederates charged into the strongholds, firing rapidly and 
all the while " yelling the infernal rebel yell." The Federals 


soon threw down their arms and surrendered unconditionally, 
about five hundred of them. It was yet early in the morn- 
ing, not later than 8 o'clock. We now had on our hands two 
regiments of prisoners, and before the going down of the sun 
we were destined to be handicapped by many more. 

While the fight was going on a fire broke out in a stable I 
think, but whether it was the result of accident or design I 
never knew. The Confederates were very sorry, as the citi- 
zens were friendly to them. The flames were not subdued 
until nearly all the business houses and a number of other 
valuable buildings had been consumed. The citizens were 
too badly demoralized to do much, and the Confederates did 
not have time, as they almost immediately had to fight another 

During the fight we observed a number of Federals 
running from the town, down the river, apparently endeavor- 
ing to escape by way of Kellar's Bridge, a mile below town. 
Colonel Ed Trimble was ordered to the bridge to cut off 
retreat by that route. 

Although Chenoweth, Jenkins and Willis, with their 
detachments, had rejoined Giltner's brigade, Morgan's cavalry 
did not consist of more than one thousand fighting men when 
we reached Cynthiana. 



The Second Battle at Cynthiana — A Desperate Combat — 
The Capture of General Hobson — The Fatal Encamp- 
ment on the Wrong Side of Licking River. 

" Hurrah! to the battle! 
They form into line : 
The swords, how they rattle ! 
The guns, how they shine ! " 

WHILE our men were scattered about the town, partak- 
ing of the hospitality of the citizens — generous, 
although their town was burning down — Colonel Trimble 
sent in a courier from Kellar's Bridge, announcing that he 
had met a strong force of Federals whom he was powerless 
to hold in check. 

Giltner quickly withdrew his brigade from the town and 
double-quicked it to Trimble's support. The Fourth Ken- 
tucky, led by Colonel Pry or, went by way of the Fair 
Grounds, and the line of battle was soon formed — Chenoweth 
and Trimble on the right, Clay's battalion, commanded by 
Holliday, and Johnson's battalion, commanded by Jackson, 
in the center, and the Fourth Kentucky on the left — not more 
than five hundred and fifty men in all. It was then about 9 
o'clock. The Federals, in gallant array, moved upon us, 
through open fields, their line about as long as ours, but 
with heavy reserves behind. It was a pretty cerulean picture, 
but we did not remain in our position to admire the imposing 
array of blue. With a yell our line charged and drove them 
back and down the slope to the bluffs of Licking River, where 
they reinforced their line and made a stubborn stand. The 
fighting was close and deadly, the enemy plainly outnumber- 
ing us two to one, possibly more. Their evolutions and 
steadiness under the galling fire of our unerring riflemen 
indicated that they were brave, disciplined troops, commanded 
by a gallant and trained officer. 

The combat became most desperate. On the slope I saw 
Jesse Fallis, of the Fourth Kentucky, stretched on his back, 


his feet to the foe, his face ghastly pale in death. Lieutenant 
Parker Dean, of Scott's company, was also killed. Six of 
Clay's battalion fell side by side. Major Diamond lost a 
brother. There were many others, killed and wounded, 
whose names I can not now recall. 

Our men marched desperately up to the blue line, and at 
' ' point blank range ' ' poured a deadly fire into the compact 
ranks of the brave Federals. That being more than they 
could endure the enemy fell back just beyond a deep railroad 
cut, in a bend of the river — an extraordinarily strong position, 
the river encircling them like a crescent, the railroad cut in 
their front. While advancing upon this new stronghold we 
passed over at least fifty of their dead and wounded. The 
situation now looked decidedly "blue." The Fourth Ken- 
tucky, the largest regiment, was out of ammunition and the 
.greater part of it had to be withdrawn. Then we undertook 
to play a "bluff" game. The Fourth Kentucky mounted 
their horses, and with empty guns in plain view of the enemy 
they went through evolutions and made demonstrations to 
impress the Federals with the belief that we were preparing 
to execute a grand coup de main. 

Where was General Morgan ? Where was the Second 
Brigade ? Since moving out of town we had neither seen nor 
heard of them. L-ike Napoleon at Waterloo we were longing 
for Grouchy — for Morgan. We suspected, however, that he 
was maneuvering to fall upon the enemy at another point, 
probably in the rear. We fervently hoped that his coming 
would not be long delayed — and, as the sequel proved, he 
■did come in "the nick of time," and to the enemy unex- 

Chenoweth, Johnson, Holliday and Trimble gallantly and 
persistently continued the fight, and being unable to cross 
the railroad cut they fought across it at close range. The 
enemy, with fixed bayonets, attempted to charge them, but 
were repulsed again and again. 

Courier after courier was sent to General Morgan, advising 
him of our desperate situation ; that we were fighting a 
largely superior force of gallant troops, who were evidently 
commanded by a sensible and trained officer ; that the Fourth 


Kentucky, being out of ammunition, had been withdrawn,, 
and that the remaining battalions, reduced to about two 
hundred and fifty fighting men, were also rapidly exhausting 
the contents of their cartridge boxes while desperately hold- 
ing the grim, determined enemy at bay. We knew Mor- 
gan would come ; but when ? Would he come too late ? 

Our little band could neither flank the enemy nor get to 
his rear, on account of the interposition of the river, the 
banks of which formed a precipice from seventy-five to one 
hundred feet high. 

To add to our anxiety and suspense a train of cars arrived 
from toward Cincinnati — whistling, puffing and blowing — 
ominous sounds. A small detachment was sent to ascertain 
whether it brought reinforcements. The officer in command 
was instructed to use his best discretion — to intercept the 
train, fire into, delay it or capture it. The train was captured,, 
but it brought no additional troops. It was freighted, how- 
ever, with three hundred cavalry horses, bridles, saddles, etc.,. 
sent, we surmised, for the purpose of mounting the force we 
were fighting, who expected to need them in a contemplated 
pursuit of defeated Confederates. 

Our line was withdrawn a short distance while the horse- 
holders sent in their ammunition. The men were cautioned 
to reserve their fire and to cease calling to their comrades for 
cartridges. Just at this time, had the enemy known our real 
condition and made a determined charge, it is more than 
probable they could have run over us — probably have captured 
us — but, hurrah ! hurrah ! hurrah ! A small column of cav- 
alry is seen approaching the enemy's rear. They wear the 
gray. We recognize the oriflamme of Morgan. There arose 
a tremendous yell, and it was, 

" Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more ; 
Or close the wall up with- our Southern dead." 

The entire line made a cyclonic rush toward the blue 
phalanx of infantry, but halted upon seeing a white flag 
borne by a Federal officer, accompanied by Major Holliday. 
The major had been missed, but it was not known that he 
had been captured. 

The object of the truce flag was to ask for a cessation of 


hostilities, while a consultation should be held in regard to 
the surrender of the Federal troops. The conference was 
very brief, lasting probably not more than ten minutes. As 
usual, General Morgan was magnanimous, and granted to 
General E- H. Hobson, the Federal commander, liberal terms 
of capitulation. The officers were allowed to retain their 
swords, and the officers and men were not to be despoiled of 
their private property. General Hobson surrendered his 
entire command, about one thousand men. 

General Hobson was a large, fine looking man, pleasant and 
•courteous, and not a stranger to many of our troops. Morgan 
had surrendered to his troops in Ohio. General Hobson was 
a man for whom Morgan's men always entertained a high 
respect, knowing him to be a gentleman and a gallant, chival- 
rous officer. 

The enemy stacked their guns, which were rifled muskets, 
with bayonets fixed. With the exception of many of the men 
who carried Enfield rifles, our soldiers abandoned their own 
guns and took those of the enemy in order to utilize the Fed- 
eral ammunition. The soldiers of the Fourth Kentucky, 
almost without exception, were armed with Enfield rifles, the 
same they had captured from the One Hundreth Ohio 
Infantry at Limestone, Tenn. They were much attached to 
the gun and were loath to throw it away. Soldier-like the}' 
trusted to luck, hoping that the vicissitudes of war would 
soon throw some Enfield cartridges into their hands, a fatal 
mistake, as the sequel, the next morning's battle at Cynthi- 
ana, proved. My recollection is that a positive order was 
issued for the men to throw away the Enfields and take the 
Federal muskets, but the order was not inforced. The 
cavalrymen naturally looked askance at an infantry musket 
with a bayonet attachment. 

The prisoners were placed in charge of Cassell's battalion 
and moved out on the Augusta Road. They were afterward in 
charge of Colonel Greenwood, the officer with big spectacles, 
the famous " torpedo man." 

We now had about one thousand and three hundred prison- 
ers and not more than one thousand fighting men. Giltner's 
brigade returned to Cynthiana, passed through the town and 


took position a short distance beyond on the Paris Pike, scouts 
having reported that a Federal force was approaching from 
that direction. 

Taking all the circumstances in consideration, probably 
any other chieftain than Morgan would have thought discre- 
tion the better part of valor and forthwith have retired from 
Kentucky to his base, far away in blessed old Virginia. 

The men were broken down by long marches, loss of sleep 
and much hard fighting. Not more than eight hundred or 
one thousand weary, partially unarmed men could be depended 
upon to fight three thousand fresh troops, with artillery, said 
to be advancing upon us by two roads ; besides the whole 
State was garrisoned with legions of well armed Federals, 
bountifully supplied with quartermaster and commissary 
stores, necessary to the effectiveness of any army. Notwith- 
standing the gloomy, depressing situation, General Morgan 
intimated his inclination to remain at Cynthiana and fight 
the fresh hosts advancing upon him. However, I have 
thought that General Morgan was not altogether to blame for 
remaining in that position until the next morning. Soon 
after nightfall I inadvertently overheard a coterie of officers, 
high in command, discussing the situation, holding an 
informal council of war. It was stated that General Morgan 
had reconsidered his resolution and suggested to his officers 
the advisability of withdrawing the command from its perilous 
position ; at least of removing it across Licking River, and 
beyond the immediate vicinity of Cynthiana. In the light of 
subsequent events, the scene and conversation of that small 
group of officers became indelibly impressed upon the tablets 
of my memory. It was a calm, weird scene. The troops 
were nearly all lying down, ' ' the weary to sleep, the wounded 
to die." I, too, was reclining upon the bluegrass sward, 
unobserved by the officers who were standing near, their 
forms clearly outlined against my canopy — the sky. They 
talked in subdued tones, but I could hear distinctly every word 
said. To my surprise, the leading spokesman ridiculed the 
idea of moving the command that night, and the others 
readily agreed with him that the men must have a night's 
rest. They argued that the weary soldiers would be abso- 


lutely incapacitated for further active service if not permitted 
to rest that night. If the general had suggested a movement 
it was then made evident to me that he had been opposed by 
leading officers in a council of war, and had acquiesced to 
their view of the situation. For this I have always blamed 
him. He was in command ; his authority was supreme, and 
his suggestion of a movement that night was founded upon 
sound military policy. We should not have been permitted 
to sleep all night while an overwhelming force of the enemy 
was moving upon us, and — the Lacking River was behind us. 
Giltner's brigade was placed in position on the Paris Turn- 
pike, near the Kimbrough mansion, on an elevation which 
commanded a view of the road several hundred yards in our 
front ; the Fourth Kentucky was immediately on the left of 
the road, facing toward Paris ; Major Holliday's (Clay's) bat- 
talion was on the opposite side of Kimbrough's house, on the 
right hand side of the road. These two battalions slept on 
their arms, in line of battle, all night. The battalions of 
Chenoweth, Johnson, Trimble and Jessee lay on their arms, 
by their horses, a short distance in the rear. The Second 
Brigade, I think, was across the river, a mile or more away, 
guarding the Leesburg Road. 



The Third Battle at Cynthiana — The Confederates Defeated 
and Stampeded— Many Captured — Death in the Licking 
River— Narrow Escape of General Morgan and a Remnant 
of His Command— The Confederate Forcf, Cut in Twain, 
Retreats from the State by Two Routes— The Federal 
Prisoners Paroled — The Bummer— Results of the Raid. 

" On the low hills to the westward, 

The consul fixed his eye ; 
And saw the swarthy storm of dust 

Rise fast along the sky ; 
And nearer, fast and nearer, 

Doth the red whirlwind come ; 
And louder still and still more loud, 
From underneath that rolling cloud, 
Is heard the trumpet's war-note proud, 

The trampling and the hum." 


EMORABLE Sunday morning— June 12,1864! The 
culmination of the Iliad of our tribulations. Amid 
the peaceful harmonies of nature on the Sabbath day, 
instead of church bell chimes we hear the war trumpet and 
the clangor of arms. We see the carpet of bluegrass sward 
and the waters of Licking River reddened by the blood of 
Kentuckians, fighting on and for their natal soil. 

"Down they go, the brave young riders; 
Horse and foot together fall ; 
Like the plowshare in its furrow 
Through them plows the Northern ball." 

Before the dawn of that Sunday morning I had been lying 
on the ground, soundly sleeping, immediately to the left of 
the turnpike, and was awakened by the rumble of artillery 
and the tramp of Federal cavalry. The ominous sound came 
rushing on, and at early dawn our weary cavalrymen were 
once more in battle line to contend with the fresh host so 
rapidly bearing down upon them. 

Captain Warren Montfort hastened to awake General Mor- 
gan ; Johnson's and Jessee's battalions took positions on the 


left of the Fourth Kentucky ; Captain Guerrant formed the 
right wing by placing Chenoweth and Trimble on Holliday's 
right. Before these preparations had been completed the 
enemy, in overwhelming numbers, were upon us. They 
rode up to within a few hundred yards, dismounted and 
charged, but were driven back. They then sent a large force 
right and left to flank us. Being nearly surrounded our line 
fell back a distance of three or four hundred yards. 

General Morgan then came upon the field at the head of 
Kirkpatrick's and Bowles' battalions, and sent one of them 
to the right, the other to the left, to repel the Federal flank- 
ing columns. The Fourth Kentucky, with empty guns, 
undertook to hold the enemy's center in check until the 
other battalions could mount their horses. Kirkpatrick's 
and Bowles' mounted battalions were too small to even 
momentarily delay the large flanking forces, and our whole 
command was soon forced back into the streets of the town, 
routed and demoralized. The confusion was indescribable — 
pandemonium reigned supreme. There was much shooting, 
swearing and yelling — some from sheer mortification were 

The Fourth Kentucky, dismounted, was in a worse predica- 
ment than the other battalions. Their horses, held in 
Augusta Street, had been stampeded by numerous cavalry- 
men dashing through the column before the boys had fallen 
back to them. The enemy came on in the form of a crescent, 
and cut off retreat by the only two avenues of escape — the 
Augusta Road and the Lacking River Bridge. The only 
thing left was to take to the river, the passage of which was 
dangerous, and the more so because of an exposure to a piti- 
less fire from the enemy. Many poor fellows were killed or 
captured in the town, and many more, men and horses, were 
killed, wounded or drowned in the river. There seemed to 
be no thought of surrender. Nothing but visions of cruel, 
loathsome prisons could have nerved those soldiers, brave as 
they were, to risk almost certain death in the Lacking River 
rather than to surrender. 

General Morgan had ordered a retreat by way of the 
Augusta Road, and he and a number of men escaped by that 


route just before the point of the blue crescent swung into 
the road. The prisoners had also been sent ahead on the 
Augusta Road. 

While falling back on the town I saw General Morgan, on 
his step-trotting roan horse, going toward the Augusta Road. 
He was " skimming" along at an easy pace, looking up at 
our broken lines and — softly whistling. I was glad to see 
him getting away, for had he been captured he would doubt- 
less have fared badly — as the Federals had not forgiven him 
for his daring escape from the Ohio prison. 

Luck came my way. While in the town I drifted about 
here and there, and was thinking of taking the river route 
to freedom or death, when a tall, fine-looking officer, a 
stranger to me, at the head of a small squad of men dashed 
up and said that he knew the topography of the country, and 
that he could flank the enemy without crossing the river. 
He spoke rapidly, scarcely halting. Ten or fifteen of us fol- 
lowed him. His name was Berry, a lieutenant of the Second 
Brigade, I think. I can not describe the route we took. I 
had never been in Cynthiana before, and I have never been 
there since that awful morning. Berry " quadruple-quicked " 
us through obscure streets and by devious and isolated path- 
ways until finally we crossed a deep, narrow stream, 
tributary to Licking River, called Indian Creek, as I remem- 
ber. We galloped across bluegrass pastures and through 
woodlands until we came into the Augusta Road, some 
distance in rear of General Morgan's rapidly-retreating col- 
umn. Hurrying on we overtook Captain Warren Montfort, 
of Jessee's battalion, who was in command of Morgan's rear 

Confederates and prisoners alike were going at a quick- 
step march. The prisoners, many of whom had tramped all 
the way from Mt. Sterling, sharing our hard marches, were 
anxious to be paroled that they might return to their homes. 
They were afraid that the Federals would overtake and 
capture us before we should have an opportunity to parol 
them. I noticed a nice-looking little prisoner, not more than 
seventeen or eighteen years of age, limping along, seemingly 
in distress. He very gratefully accepted my invitation for 


him to get up behind me and ride. I shared my horse with 
him until we arrived at Clayvillage, where the prisoners were 
paroled. Not having time to give them written parols they 
were simply required to hold up their right hands and sol- 
emnly swear that they would not take up arms again until 
regularly exchanged. The " wholesale-swearing" ceremony 
was decidedly ludicrous, and we had little confidence that the 
men would be permitted to observe parols of that informal 

Nil desperandum ! Notwithstanding the horrors at Cynthi- 
ana ; the desperate fighting ; the indescribable scenes in the 
town — the enemy on three sides and the Licking River on 
the other — the men of General Morgan's retreating column 
were cheerful, even merry. Their disagreeable experience 
was the fortune of war. There were between two and three 
hundred merry cavaliers following the plume of the smiling 
Morgan. We were ignorant of the fate of Giltner, Guerrant, 
Trimble, Everett, Scott, Barrett and others. We had seen 
Trimble's gallant battalion struggling in the river, and were 
confident that many, very many, of our comrades were sleep- 
ing the sleep of death, and yet we rode on merely saying 
" conquiescatin pace ," anxious to get as far away from Cynthi- 
ana as possible. We were ' ' bound for Old Virginia once 
more,"- and were by no means assured of a safe journey 

There was the possibility of being intercepted and forced 
to fight again — or run. However, we worried not. We 
crossed no bridge before we came to it, and then we burned 
it. We knew that we could outrun any Federal cavalry that 
might be pursuing us. From Clayvillage we had taken a 
northeastern course, passing from Harrison County into 
Robertson, thence to Sardis, a small town south of Maysville. 
At Sardis I witnessed a scene, similar to others, nearly always 
incidental to cavalry raids. A store, stocked with general 
merchandise, was being robbed by men who had marched in 
advance of the main column. It was enough to bring the 
blush of shame to the cheek of any honest cavalier, and was 
especially mortifying and humiliating to all proud Kentuck- 
ians, and more's the pity we were nearly all Kentuckians. 


We had to halt until the " looters" could be persuaded to 
move on. Men of other commands caught the infection, and 
doubtless thinking that as " everything was going " they 
might as well have a share they entered the store and appro- 
priated to themselves all the lighter class of goods that the 
other fellows had failed to carry off. It was understood that 
the owner of the store was a Union man, and the boys not 
having much love for that class of men, especially at that 
particular time, thought lex talionis a good motto, and 
remembered that inter arma silent leges. The scene was not 
without a ludicrous side. Horses were loaded with bolts of 
calico, domestic cotton, boots, shoes, millinery goods, even 
babies' shoes, and so on, adinfinituiii. 

There are strange anomalies in war — especially in a civil 
war. To use the language of Victor Hugo : 

" One of the most surprising things is the rapid stripping of 
the dead after victory ; the dawn that follows a battle always 
rises on naked corpses. Who does this? Who sullies the 
triumph in this way ? Whose is the hideous, furtive hand 
which slips into the pocket of victory ? Who are the villains 
dealing their death stroke behind the glory ? Some philoso- 
phers, Voltaire among them, assert that they are the very 
men who have made the glory ; they say that those who keep 
their feet plunder those lying on the ground, and the hero of 
the day is the vampire of the night. After all a man has the 
right to strip a corpse of which he is the author. We do not 
believe it, however ; reaping a crop of laurels and stealing the 
shoes of a dead man, or of a live one, either, does not seem 
possible from the same hand." 

I am inclined to the belief of Voltaire. I know that the 
soldiers who plundered the store at Sardis, thoughtless boys 
that they were, had shown their gallantry on many a field, 
and that they were not criminals in the common acceptation 
of the term. 

From Sardis we moved at an ordinary pace, not stopping, 
however, until we reached the vicinity of Morehead, in 
Rowan County. Here, at night, in a large grass field, with- 
out unsaddling, we turned our horses loose to graze, and lay 
down to rest and sleep, of which we were much in need. 


John Callaway, of Gathright's company, and myself were 
lying together when a trooper's horse, laden with cavalry 
boots and other things, in fact a miniature store, wandered 
near us. The night was dark, and we instantly determined 
to relieve that horse of at least two pairs of boots. We rea- 
soned that the trooper, a stranger to us, had no right to so 
many ' ' store goods," and acting quickly we each appropriated 
an elegant pair of cavalry boots, luckily securing a tolerably 
good fit. We could not conscientiously pillage a store, but 
we had no hesitancy in robbing a gay Confederate cavalier 
when he had a surplus. 

We marched leisurely and uninterruptedly to the Louisa 
Fork of Big Sandy River, and up the same, thence into Vir- 
ginia, where we learned for the first time of the escape of 
Colonel Giltner, with about two hundred men of various 
commands, about forty of whom belonged to the Fourth 

Giltner's column had traveled a more tortuous route and 
encountered more difficulties and dangers than that which 
followed Morgan. They had escaped the terrors of Licking 
River, but had to fight a cavalry force that had crossed the 
bridge and attempted to intercept them on the other shore. 
The desperate Confederates fought them with saber and pis- 
tol, driving them out of the way Giltner's party then made 
a detour from the Leesburg Road, his ranks being constantly 
augmented by other small squads running for life. Further 
on, this unorganized band was increased by the addition of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Alston, Captain Pete Everett and Captain 
Castleman with about two hundred and fifty men. They 
were mostly unarmed, having lost their guns in the river or 
thrown them away, as they had no ammunition. Giltner 
directed Castleman and Everett to organize a body of armed 
men for a rear guard. Colonel Jessee, who, with a gallant 
little band had so bravely covered the rear at the river, was 
transferred to the front to command the advance guard. 
Colonels Trimble, Johnson and Alston, and Captains Guer- 
rant, Scott, Barrett, Candall, Castleman, Everett and other 
officers were with Giltner. When he had gone some distance 
from Cynthiana, Colonel Giltner detached Jessee and ordered 


him to proceed to Owen and Henry Counties to serve as a 
nucleus for the rallying of the scattered clans. Colonel John- 
son was sent to the vicinity of Mt. Sterling for the same 

Giltner's column marched rapidly through fields and by 
unfrequented roads, sometimes on the highways, cutting tel- 
egraph wires and dodging Federal troops. They narrowly 
escaped from the Federals at Nicholasville and Richmond. 
Captain Pete Everett and others had left the column at 
Georgetown, and men had continued to fall out all along the 
route, until Giltner's force was reduced one-half. Of those 
who were left not more than sixty or seventy were armed. 
Lieutenant Corbin, of Jessee's command, gallantly commanded 
the advance guard, after his chief's departure, and Captain 
Tom Barrett much of the time was in command of the rear 
guard, a dangerous and responsible position. 

With about two hundred men, Colonel Giltner succeeded 
in getting out of Kentucky by way of Pennington's Gap in 
the Cumberland Mountains. Thus it will be seen that Mor- 
gan's cavalry was cut in twain at Cynthiana, the lines of 
retreat forming two sides of a triangle, of which Cynthiana 
was the apex and the Cumberland Mountains the base. 

In this memorable campaign General Morgan had surprised 
two Federal forces and captured them ; he had fought Gen- 
eral Hobson and captured him and one thousand men. In 
turn, General Morgan himself had met with two serious dis- 
asters — on the second morning at Mt. Sterling and the second 
morning at Cynthiana. He had paroled between twelve and 
fifteen hundred prisoners, and had lost In killed, wounded, 
captured and missing about one thousand men. 



General Morgan's March to Greenville, Tenn. 

" Loud neigh the coursers 
O'er their heaps of corn, 
And ardent warriors 
Wait the rising morn." 

DURING the months of July and August, subsequent to 
the Kentucky campaign, General Morgan chafed at 
restraint and was restless under inforced inactivity. It 
required time to reorganize his command and for his troopers 
to recuperate from the effects of the successes and disasters 
that had characterized the fighting on the ' ' dark and bloody 
ground." However, during the latter days of August there 
was activity in Morgan's camp. Glistening guns, burnished 
sabers, gay plumes and pennons fair indicated that the rest- 
less chieftain was ready to march against the enemy. No 
one seemed to know whither we were going ; but all knew 
there would soon be " music in the air," and we impatiently 
awaited the sounding of the bugle horn. We had not long 
to wait until the general 

" Bade his band they should array 
For march against the dawning day." 

From Virginia we marched into Tennessee and arrived at 
Greenville late in the afternoon of September 3, 1864. 

It was known that a force of Federals commanded by Gen- 
eral Gillem was at Bulls Gap, probably eighteen miles west 
of Greenville. 

Four roads led from Greenville toward Gillem's position — 
the Bulls Gap Road running almost due west, the Rogersville 
Road northwest, and the Warrensburg and Newport Roads 
southwest, the latter two forming a junction about one mile 
from Greenville. 

Giltner's brigade, Captain J. E. Cantrill's detachment and 
Captain Pete Everett, commanding, I think, a portion of Gen- 
eral Geo. B. Hodge's brigade, were on the Rogersville Road, 



Giltner in advance, probably two miles from town. Bradford, 
commanding Vaughn's Tennesseeans, was on the Bulls Gap 
Road, two miles from town, and Captain Walters with a 
detachment of the Sixteenth Georgia, about fifty men, was on 
the Warrensburg Road. There was no one on the Newport 

Cassell's battalion and the artillery were on an eminence in 
the eastern suburbs of the town. General Morgan established 
his headquarters at the home of his friend, Mrs. Williams, in 
the town. 

A careful study of the disposition of the troops and of the 
following diagram will enable the reader to understand sub- 
sequent events. 


Giltner's headquarters were also established at a house, a 
neat cottage, occupied by a pleasant and hospitable lady, 
named Vestal, I think. Like General Morgan and staff, 
Giltner and his military family were inclined to luxurious 
habits, fond of "square meals" and of sleeping on "goose 
hair." At this time Colonel Giltner, Captain Guerrant, Cap- 
tain Barney Giltner and myself were the only members of 
the " family " present. Captain Henry T Stanton was at 


Abingdon, Captain Peyton Miller was temporarily adjutant 
of the Fourth Kentucky, Captain J. J. McAfee was perform- 
ing the duties of adjutant-general of the Hodge brigade, 
Lieutenant H. T. Anderson was at the general's headquarters, 
Brainard Bay less was in prison, and Charley Carter had gone 

The night was very dark and it rained almost incessantly. 



Morgan Betrayed — The Woman — General, Giuem's March. 

THE woman who had betrayed General Morgan was the 
daughter-in-law of his friend and hostess, Mrs. Will- 
iams. The general was unaware of the fact that the young 
woman was unfriendly to the South. Pretending to be 
friendly, she had ample time and opportunity to ascertain our 
strength, the location of the troops and the fatal fact of the 
unpicketed Newport Road. She was certainly a remarkable 
woman, decisive, prompt and courageous. Quickly compre- 
hending the situation, she resolved to betray her mother's 
guest, the handsome Confederate chieftain, whose gentle- 
manly instincts and chivalrous regard for all women precluded 
any thought of treachery on the part of the " fair Greek 
bringing' gifts. ' ' 

Accounts are conflicting as to the time when she left the 
house. Some say that she left the supper table quietly and 
without remark, while others think she remained within the 
house until after the general had retired for the night. She 
must, however, have left early in the evening, as she is known 
to have reached Gillem's headquarters about 10 o'clock. She 
evidently had the assistance of emissaries. The town being 
hostile to the Confederacy, doubtless some bushwhacker 
informed her of the unguarded Newport Road. There were 
women in the town, wives of Federal partisan officers and 
bushwhackers, who had achieved unenviable fame as spies ; 
among them the Amazonian mail carrier, Mrs. David Fry, who 
had been previously restricted to the limits of Greenville by 
special order issued by Colonel Giltner. It is therefore plain 
that the betrayer of General Morgan could command the 
services of willing male and female coadjutors in her 
treacherous scheme. Some of the Federal soldiers said that 
two women went to Gillem's headquarters. That may pos- 
sibly be true, and it is more than probable that the Williams 
woman was accompanied by a male companion, during a part, 
at least, of her nocturnal pilgrimage through excessive dark- 


ness. rain and mud, from Greenville to Bulls Gap. The con- 
temporaneous opinion, however, was that she made the trip 
unattended. That opinion was based mainly upon her own 
vauutful declaration, she claiming all the honor, such as it 
was. Xot having much confidence in a woman of her guild. 
I accept her statement arm gr.i>:o sa!:s. 

The Federal general eagerly listened to the woman s story 
and promptly availed himseif of the valuable information 
given him. By n o"clock his column, about two thousand 
strong, was en rout-: to Greenville. 

At some point on the road, I know not where, Gilleni 
detached one hundred and fifty or two hundred men from the 
Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry and sent them across the 
country to the Warreusburg and Xewport Roads, with orders 
to make a forced march and to charge the town from the Xew- 
port Road and surround the square in which was located the 
Williams mansion. The object, of course, was to either kill 
or capture General Morgan. 

Giilem was eager, alert, expeditious and hopeful of success. 
It was an opportunity not to be lost. If successful, fame and 
promotion would undoubtedly be his. It would be a proud 
feather in his cap. the capture of the famous " wizard of the 
saddle." General John H. Morgan. 

The detachment of Tennesseans was admirably adapted to 
Gi'.lem s purpose. Being natives of the locality even." man 
was familiar with the roads and by-paths and acquainted with 
the town of Greenville. 

Giilem. with his main force, moved on the main road from 
Bulls Gap toward Greenville, intending to make a feint on 
Bradford and engage that officer's attention while the detach- 
ment oi the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry should be perform- 
ing its mission in the town. The plan succeeded beyond the 
Federal general's most sanguine expectations. When the 
attack was made, Bradford's men. pickets and all, were 
apparently asleep, and what Giilem intended as a feint 
proved to be a rout to Bradford's sleepy, surprised and 
demoralized Tennesseans. Had any one of the Kentucky 
battalions been on that road there would have been a fight. 
and the tragedy of the morning, possibly would have been 
averted and this history differently written. 



General Morgan Surprised — Confusion in the Camps — The 
General Missing — Uncertainty Regarding His Fate — 
Retreat on the Jonesboro Road — Captain McAfee, Under 
a Flag of Truce, Finds the General's Dead Body in Green- 

AT about 6 o'clock on Sunday morning Giltner's little 
military family sat down to an elaborate breakfast, 
generously served by the sympathetic hostess. While 
leisurely eating and discussing the probable events of the 
day, anathematizing the rain and gloomy weather and com- 
miserating the uncomfortable situation of the troops in 
camps, we heard firing across the country in the direction of 
Bradford's Tennesseans. We were not much startled — a 
soldier being accustomed to hearing firing at unexpected 
times and places. We thought Bradford's men were firing 
off their wet guns. That delusion, however, was soon dis- 
pelled, as the firing increased in volume and seemed to be 
nearing Greenville. We anxiously turned our eyes toward 
the town, expecting the arrival of a staff officer with orders. 
Again there was a furious volley, evidently at Greenville. 
Still no orders. Colonel Giltner then assumed the responsi- 
bility of ordering the bugle to sound " boots and saddles," 
and then awaited orders. None came. Alas ! we did not 
know. General Morgan had issued his last order. The 
inquiry went along the waiting column : " What can be the 
matter ? " " Why do we not receive orders ? " The suspense 
was indescribably trying. Finally Colonel Giltner quietly 
remarked to his officers, " Gentlemen, orders or no orders, 
I am going to double-quick my brigade to Greenville." We 
had scarcely begun the movement when a breathless soldier 
dashed up to the colonel and delivered a verbal order, 
emanating from — he did not know whom, that we were to 
march quickly to Greenville. This order was irregular and 
under ordinary circumstances would not be obeyed — a verbal 


order not being recognized unless delivered by a member of 
the staff or some commissioned officer. However in this 
case it made no difference — we were going any way. 

We were making a rapid march, stimulated by the firing 
in our front, when a young officer met us, saying he came 
from Colonel D. Howard Smith with orders that we should 
join him on the Jonesboro Road. The messenger said the 
enemy were in possession of the town and that General Mor- 
gan was missing. About this time we heard firing east of 
town, on the Jonesboro Road, indicating that our troops 
were in full retreat. Everett and Cantrill, who had been 
encamped between us and town, were gone — we knew not 
whither. Desiring to unite with Colonel Smith, who now 
seemed to be in command, we impressed a guide and ordered 
him to lead us by the straightest, most practicable route 
across the country to the Jonesboro Road. We followed the 
guide a mile or more through fields, bushes and woodland, 
and then he left us — lost. Desultory firing was heard further 
and further from Greenville toward Rheatown, on the Jones- 
boro Road, and all the while we were rambling about over a 
villainous country, inhabited by " Union bushwhackers," 
who, even if so inclined, were apparently too ignorant to 
understand what we wanted or to give us intelligent informa- 
tion or directions. After much tribulation we finally emerged 
from " the wilderness," striking the Jonesboro Road, just in 
xear of the Hodge brigade, and between it and the enemy. 
Everett's men could give us little information as to the fate 
of General Morgan. Nobody seemed to know anything. 
Morgan was missing, probably captured, possibly killed; 
yet there was a chance that he had escaped. 

Everett and Cantrill said the Federals were in the town 
when they arrived there, and they were compelled to move 
around it. They found all the troops gone, but, nevertheless, 
they formed east of town and exchanged shots with the 
enemy. Bob Scott, General Hodge's clerk in the adjutant- 
general's office, was killed, shot through the head. A gal- 
lant soldier of Johnson's battalion, named Lail, was also 
killed. He was the young soldier who captured a Federal 
dispatch bearer, near Richmond, Ky., while on the retreat 


from Cynthiana. Another soldier, whose name I do not 
know, was killed at the same time. Everett and Cantrill 
would have continued the fight, but withdrew in obedience 
to orders from Smith and Bradford, who were retreating 
rather precipitately toward Rheatown. Colonel Giltner was 
very angry and declared that the retreat was a shame. The 
troops also grumbled, and wondered why we continued to 
retreat. Some swore that we were fleeing from a shadow, 
and nearly all were of the opinion that a desperate resistance 
should have been made just behind Greenville until the 
troops could have been concentrated there. Bradford's Ten- 
nesseans, however, were so demoralized that it is doubtful 
whether Colonels Smith and Bradford could have checked 
the current flowing to the rear. 

When we had reached the road we found no one to give 
us orders. Giltner, protesting the while, slowly followed in 
rear of the retreating troops, his brigade being the rear 
guard. The colonel sent me forward to find Colonel Smith, 
or whoever was in command, and to inform him of the 
whereabouts of Giltner's brigade. I was also ordered to say 
to the commanding officer that Colonel Giltner would respect- 
fully suggest that, as the entire command was then on the 
Jonesboro Road, the retreat should be discontinued and that 
the division should right-about-face and march back to Green- 
ville, if possible, to ascertain the fate of General Morgan. 
But that if the retreat must continue, he desired to send a 
flag of truce to Greenville to bring off the general's body, if 

I found Colonel Smith, who directed me to tell 
Giltner to double-quick his brigade toward Jonesboro, say- 
ing he had information that the enemy was marching on our 
right flank. He assented, however, to Giltner's proposition 
in regard to the flag of truce. When I delivered Colonel 
Smith's order Giltner expressed disgust, and declared that 
he did not believe any Federals of consequence were even 
following us. 

Colonel Giltner directed Captain J. J. McAfee to take four 
men from the Fourth Kentucky, and several others, I do not 
remember whom nor how many, and to proceed to Green- 


ville and ascertain, if possible, the fate of Morgan. If the 
general had been killed McAfee was to request General Gil- 
lem to let him have the body, that it might be forwarded to 
Mrs. Morgan at Abingdon. We halted at Rheatown and 
awaited the return of the flag of truce. About midnight a 
courier from McAfee announced that he had found General 
Morgan dead in Greenville, the body laid out in Mrs. Will- 
iams' house, and that there were no Federals in the town. 



The Death of Morgan — The Garden Scene — Murder in the 
Vineyard — Arrival of General Basil W. Duke and Colonel 
Dick Morgan — Burial of the Dead Chieftain at Abingdon 
— Some Reflections. 

" He woke to die midst flame, and smoke, 
And shout, and groan, and saber stroke." 

EVEN at this remote day it is with sad and halting pen 
that I attempt to record the events connected with the 
tragedy enacted at Greenville Sunday morning, September 4, 
1864 — the death of Morgan, the dauntless cavalier, the 
flower of our knighthood, the pride of the cavalry 

The following dispatch carried inexpressible sorrow to the 
heart of a beautiful and accomplished wife, who had idolized 
her gallant and handsome husband, the peerless Morgan. 

Headquarters Brigade, Near Rheatown, Tenn., 

September 4, 1864. 
Mrs. Generai, Morgan, Abingdon, Va.: 

With deep sorrow I have to announce the sad intelligence of your 
husband's death. He fell by the hands of the enemy, at Greenville, 
this morning. His remains are being brought away under flag of 
truce. We all mourn with you in this great affliction. Most respect- 
fully, H. L. GlLTNER, 

Colonel Commanding Brigade. 

Morgan dead ! The Southland mourns ! The enemy rejoices ! 
A devoted wife is bereaved and the hearts of his cavalrymen 
are filled with gloom and unavailing regrets. A horrible Sun- 
da5^ morning tragedy disgraces forever the "heavy villain" 
in the play. Weeping clouds mingle their tears with those 
of the wife so cruelly made a widow ; the echoes of rolling 
thunder are blended with the mutterings of the dead chief- 
tain's followers, who vow vengeance on the town of Green- 
ville and upon the brutal ruffians who, having murdered the 
brave, defenseless general, perpetrated unspeakable indigni- 
ties upon the helpless, unresisting dead body. Oh, the shame 


of it! The generous-hearted general, whose banner ever 
bore the motto, "Clemency belongs to the brave," murdered 
by ruffians, who, had they fallen into his hands, would have 
received that generous treatment always accorded by a brave 
and gentlemanly soldier to a prisoner of war. Yet General 
Morgan, alone and defenseless, is basely slain by a Tennessee 
mountaineer, a bushwhacker. Such a dastardly tragedy 
would have been impossible had General Morgan fallen into 
the hands of General Hobson's command. No true, honor- 
able soldier killed General Morgan, nor did any officer, worthy 
of the name, sanction the horrible, shameful deed. 

General Morgan fell in the noonday of his brilliant and 
somewhat romantic career, crowned with a warrior's deathless 
fame. Those who followed his plume can never forget the 
stirring times when, riding far within Federal lines, their 
" gray uniform and a strange new flag ' ' greeted the sons of the 
morning. Fama. semper vivat. 

Surrounding the Williams mansion was a large yard in 
which there was a number of trees aUd much shrubbery. 
Adjoining the yard was a garden in which was a small, 
untrimmed vineyard. The garden, partly inclosed by a high 
plank fence, was the scene of the murder of General Morgan. 
There "in the pleasant vineyard ground," surrounded by 
bloodthirsty foes, the Marion of the civil war, only thirty- 
nine years old, showed a brutal, cowardly soldiery how a 
brave and honorable Southern cavalier could die. Far away 
from the old Kentucky home, among strangers, alone, sur- 
rounded by unsympathetic enemies, he died where 

"There was lack of woman's nursing, 
There was dearth of woman's tears." 

Major Williams, a son of the general's hostess, and brother- 
in-law of Mrs. Lucy Williams, the woman who betrayed him, 
was temporarily serving on the general's staff, and was an 
eyewitness to much that occurred in the house and in the 
garden. His story was substantially as follows : When the 
Federals dashed into the town he ran up-stairs to the gen- 
eral's room and cried, "For God's sake, general, get out of 
here, the town is full of Yankees! " The general hurriedly 



put on his trousers and socks, threw his pistols over his shoul- 
ders, ran down the stairs and out the back door into the thick 
foliage of the yard. Seeing Mrs. Williams, as he passed out 
the door, he gave a military salute and smilingly said, " Good- 
bye, Mrs. Williams, I am all right now." The enemy were 
then at the front door. He ran down to the Episcopal Church, 
but seeing the street was guarded by soldiers, he turned and 
ran back into the garden. The notorious Mrs. Fry and other 
fiendish women saw him from their windows, and knowing 
him pointed him out to the soldiers, saying, "There he is; 
there he goes; that's Morgan, over there in the vineyard!" 
The soldiers rode up and began shooting through the grounds. 
Being closely pressed, and hearing the soldiers' oaths and 
threats, the general stood at bay, and feeling assured that 
they meant to kill him he returned their shots until he had 
emptied his pistols, and then — threw up his hands and sur- 
rendered. Captain Wilcox, of the Thirteenth Tennessee 
Cavalry, rode up to the general and received his pistols. 
After a moment's conversation, Wilcox rode away While 
standing there a defenseless prisoner, a soldier approached 
the general and presented his gun. The general exclaimed: 
" My God! don't shoot! I am a prisoner!" With an oath, the 
cowardly ruffian fired, the ball striking the general full in the 
breast, passing through the heart and ranging downward. 
The murderer threw the dead body across his horse and gal- 
loped along the streets, exulting in his diabolical deed. He 
then galloped out to Gillem's quarters, about two miles from 
town, and threw the body into a muddy ditch by the road- 

That General Morgan was murdered there is not the shadow 
of a doubt. The fact that only one ball struck him, and that 
at point blank range, the powder burning his body, is, of 
itself, proof sufficient, the general's empty pistols being in 
the possession of Wilcox. The fellow had no excuse what- 
ever for firing. His life was not in danger. The general, 
holding up his defenseless hands, asked him not to shoot. A 
hostler in a stable near the vineyard said he distinctly heard 
the general's words when he surrendered, and that he saw the 
man ride up and shoot him. Captains Charles A. Withers and 


L. C. Johnson, of the general's staff, were at first with the 
general in the garden. They corroborate the foregoing state- 
ments concerning the surrender and murder. While some 
members of the general's staff were running hither and 
thither, seeking some avenue of escape, Mrs. Williams cried 
out to them, "Your brave general lies dead in my vineyard!" 
Captain Withers, Captain James Rogers, Captain Harry Clay, 
L. C Johnson and probably others of the staff were captured. 
No one of them was harmed. The murder of Morgan seemed 
to satiate the enemy's thirst for blood. 

Captain Withers says that when he found the soldiers were 
treating the general's dead body with almost even.- conceiv- 
able indignity, he told Gillem that his men were treating the 
body like that of a dog, and that Gillem replied : " Ay sir, 
and it shall lie there and rot like a dog." Gillem was very 
abusive, and rejected and scoffed at even,- appeal of Withers 
that he be permitted to care for the body. Finally, however, 
Gillem being called away, Colonel Brownlow, who seemed to 
be a gentleman, told Withers that he should have the body 
and be given an opportunity to prepare it for burial. Brown- 
low sent out into the country for the body and had it taken 
to Mrs. Williams' house, where Captain Withers and Captain 
Rogers, assisted by a negro man, washed and dressed it, Mrs. 
Williams and a few gentle-hearted ladies rendering such 
assistance as was in their power. As before said, it was here 
that Captain McAfee and party, with Giltner's flag of truce, 
found the body of Morgan. McAfee had the corpse inclosed 
in a neat walnut coffin made in Greenville, and securing a 
small one-horse wagon, the only substitute for a hearse he 
could find, his little cortege slowly and sadly marched back 
to the command encamped near Jonesboro. 

General Duke and Colonel Dick Morgan arrived in camp 
the da}- after General Morgan was killed. Having been in 
prison since the Ohio raid, they had only recently been 
exchanged. The general's body was turned over to them. 
It was a sad day for Colonel Dick Morgan, the brother, and 
General Duke, the brother-in-law of the dead chieftain. 
General Duke, Colonel Morgan, Colonel Crittenden, Colonel 
Ward, Colonel D. Howard Smith and other officers, with an 


escort from Cantrill's and Cassell's battalions, accompanied 
General Morgan's remains to Abingdon, where they were 
temporarily interred until opportunity should offer for their 
removal to Lexington, Ky. 

Colonel D. Howard Smith was criticised, somewhat, for 
apparent indecision, irresolution and lack of dash and energy 
on that fatal morning at Greenville. Colonel Smith's bravery 
and accomplishments as an officer can not be questioned. 
He had long been one of General Morgan's trusted lieuten- 
ants and a conspicuous officer in nearly all of the general's 
most important movements. The situation at Greenville 
was peculiar. Colonel Smith, possibly, was unaware of the 
location of the several battalions. Much valuable time was 
lost before it was known that Morgan was missing. The 
command was scattered, some parts of it isolated. Smith had 
no means of ascertaining the enemy's force. It took time 
to find the several commanders, and in part explain the 
situation. It could not be wholly explained because the 
fate of Morgan was unknown. Had Colonel Smith recklessly 
dashed into the town before the command was concentrated, 
and without consultation with his officers, the result might 
have been most serious if not disastrous. Any action, how- 
ever prompt, could not have saved Morgan. At the first 
alarm he was killed. There was really nothing to gain by 
attacking the enemy, unless indeed it should be for purposes of 
vengeance. When the commanding officer is killed on the 
field of battle where all can see, there is always more or less 
demoralization. In this instance the chief was the first man 
killed, and no one of the command except members of his 
staff who were captives knew of the fact. Take it all in all, 
I am not aware of any similar military condition in history. 
It was the unexpected that happened to us that Sunday 
morning. Again I am constrained to exclaim : Bella ! 
bella! horrida bella! 

General Morgan has been criticised for being in town 
away from his command. In one sense the criticism is just. 
It is unmilitary in a commanding officer to be away from his 
troops when in the presence of the enemy, and history is 
replete with instances where generals have come to grief by 


disregarding that law. In General Morgan's case there are 
extenuating circumstances. In point of fact, he was not away 
from his command. He was in the midst of it, surrounded 
by it. His position was apparently safe. No human fore- 
sight could have foreseen what actually happened, nor 
dreamed of the combination of circumstances leading thereto, 
and, alas ! poor Morgan trusted too much to the fair 
Greeks bringing gifts, and was ignorant of the unpicketed 
Newport Road. The town, the home of Andrew Johnson, 
was intensely disloyal to the South, and, maledictions upon 
her, a woman heartlessly betrayed him. I know of my per- 
sonal knowledge that General Morgan seemingly took every 
precaution to guard against surprise. In my capacity of 
clerk, I had business with Captain Withers, his adjutant- 
general, which detained me at his headquarters in town 
until nearly dark. On my way to Giltner's brigade on the 
Rogersville Road, I met the general and his quartermaster, 
Major Gassett, about a mile from Greenville. They were 
riding rapidly and so was I. When we met the general 
greeted me pleasantly, and the recollection of the fact is a 
sweet memory to-day, for it was the last time I ever saw him. 
I then little dreamed of the tragedy of the morrow. The 
thought occurred to me, however, that the general was taking 
unusual precautions, it being customary for general officers 
to order certain roads picketed and to rely upon the reports 
of subordinates that " all is well." When I reached the 
brigade and commented on the general's visit, I learned that 
he had not only visited the brigade, but that he had ridden 
out to the station of the vedettes. I do not know, but I 
always have thought that it being dark when he returned to 
town, he failed to visit the roads on the left, and felt secure, 
Captain Walters doubtless reporting that the roads in that 
direction were properly guarded. Really the unpicketed 
Newport Road, even if its existence were known to General 
Morgan, would not have been considered important, as it 
scarcely extended toward the enemy's position. The woman 
did it all. 





General Marshall and Tom Hayden. 

NE afternoon the Fourth Kentucky, being in advance, 
had halted after crossing a mountain, waiting for 
the rest of the brigade to "close up." General Marshall 
riding up from the rear stopped at the head of the regiment, 
where for the first time he saw Tom Hayden, the bugler. 
Now Tom had belonged to a brass band before the war, and 
when he went into the army he took his cornet horn along 
to keep in practice. He was an accomplished musician, and 
could play on almost any kind of instrument. Colonel Gilt- 
ner knowing his accomplishments appointed him bugler. 
Tom neglected to learn the various regulation cavalry 
"calls," and usually, when sounding reveille, boots and sad- 
dles, etc., he would simply play some popular air, a favorite 
being " Sweet Ellen Bayne." The keys were frequently out 
of order, and often it was difficult to blow the bugle at all. 
General Marshall examined Tom's horn, and then pleasantly 
commanded him to sound the " calls." Tom, afraid to con- 
fess that he did not know them, said the old horn was out of 
order and could not be blown. The general then told him 
to whistle the " calls." Tom said he could not whistle. The 
general then laughinglj- said that ' ' a bird that could sing 
and wouldn't sing should be made to sing," and then he rode 
away, much to Tom's relief. 

General Marshall and the Saber Drill. 

At one time, during Bragg's Kentucky campaign, we were 
hustled off to Morehead, Rowan County, to assist General 
John H. Morgan in intercepting the Federal general, George 
W Morgan, then making his famous retreat from Cumber- 
land Gap. 


The boys had been armed with heavy English sabers, 
splendid weapons, but they despised them, and generally 
nianaged to " lose " them. While at Morehead, awaiting 
developments on the part of the enemy the general concluded 
to exercise us in the saber drill. He was a master in the 
use of the weapon, and the day being hot and the exercise 
being exceedingly wearisome, especially to the right hand 
and arm, the boys became so disgusted that they ever after- 
ward rebelled against carrying any such weapon, and the 
more so because they thought it extremely improbable that 
they should ever have any use for it. While the drill was in 
progress General Marshall walked up to John Vories and 
me and bade us both to employ all our skill and vigor in an 
attempt to strike him. In our verdancy we thought that 
would be an easy matter — two against one — and we endeav- 
ored to be very careful, fearing we might inadvertently 
injure the good general : but he parried our thrusts so easily 
bv a " simple twist of the wrist." always catching our blades 
on the guard of his, that we filially became excited and cut 
and slashed at him in a terrific manner, always however, 
with the same result, the general standing composedly before 
us, and apparently without an effort parrying ever}" cut or 
thrust, until at last he stepped back and told us to hold up : 
that our d — d awkwardness might make him forget himself 
and leave his guard open. That exercise was a revelation to 
us of the advantage an expert swordsman would have over 
a novice. 

The following is the concluding stanza of a plaintive song 
written by Major McKnight: 

Ix Pkisox ox Lake Erie. 

How many moons will rise and wane. 

How many months will langr.ish. 
Ere Peace, the white-winged angel, eotnes 

To soothe a captive's angvhsh ? 
God speed the long'd and prayed for day. 

When loved ones, bright and cheer}-. 
Shall welcome him aronnd the hearth. 

From prison onLake Erie. 


Skirmishing for Corn. 
During the East Tennessee campaign forage became very 
scarce. Burnside's and Longstreet's armies had stripped the 
country. At one time, however, while our cavalry was occu- 
pying a position at Mooresburg there was a large field of corn 
between our line and that of the enemy. There was a race 
every morning between the cavalry of each army, both aim- 
ing for the same place — the cornfield. If we got there first 
a skirmish line was advanced to the front to " warn off the 
Yanks" until the boys could fill their sacks with the coveted 
corn. Probably on the next morning the boys in blue would 
be the "first in the field," when they would practice the same 
tactics adopted by us on the previous day. This went on for 
a week or more, the skirmishing at times being quite lively. 

The; Mud Lark. 

When in camp, on short rations, consisting often of noth- 
ing more than meager quantities of blue beef and rice, with a 
modicum of bread, made of unbolted flour, the soldiers fre- 
quently made quiet, stealthy forays into the surrounding 
country in search of something for the benefit of stomachs 
nearly always in an "unsatisfied-like" condition. On these 
excursions the most satisfactory game they could "flush" 
was a " mud lark." Now, unsophisticated reader, you must 
not think the boys were hunting for a bird that sings in the 
meadow and rises with the sun. Not at all. They are simply 
on a "still hunt" for an unpoetical, grunting, razor-back 
hog, which the high-toned Southern cavalier calls a " mud 
lark." Being the private property of loyal citizens there are 
strict orders against killing the " larks," and therefore the 
" forager " must use much strategy and discretion. He 
usually inveigles his " larkship " into some sequestered dale, 
where he can be dispatched, skinned and chucked into a bag, 
unobserved by the " Lord of the Manor." This proceeding 
successfully accomplished the defunct " mud lark " is smug- 
gled into camp, and a few choice spirits are invited to the 
festal board to enjoy a feast like unto that Charles Lamb 
describes in his inimitable " Dissertation of Roast Pig." 


Upon one of these forays I was so fortunate as to have a 
"pal" in the person of Clayt. Hartsough, a bold, generous- 
hearted Owenton, Ky., boy. We had been quite successful, 
and were in the act of skinning a "lark," when suddenly a 
fine old Virginia gentleman, mounted on a big bay horse, 
appeared on the scene. He was awfully mad, and swore that 
he was going immediately to camp to report us. He evi- 
dently meant business, but Hartsough being equal to the 
emergency promptly instituted "a game of bluff." He 
leveled his Enfield rifle at the f. o. V g., and swore he would 
shoot him off his horse if he did not forthwith return to his 
" fine old ancestral hall," which was in sight, about a quarter 
of a mile away. The old gentleman concluding that Clayt. 
held the best hand declined to " call him," and we never saw 
nor heard of him again. 

Sleeping in the Snow. 

Not desiring to overburden his horse the cavalryman seldom 
carried more than one blanket, and generally having no roof 
over his head other than the canopy of the sky, and no couch 
other than the earth, it was customary for two or three sol- 
diers to " bunk together," using the two or three blankets for 
bed and cover. Upon one occasion near Rogersville we went 
into camp in an open field, Colonel Pry or, Major Parker and 
myself sleeping together. Being a boy and small they put 
me in the "middle." We slumbered through the entire night, 
unconscious that a heavy snow was falling until at early 
dawn, being "crowded" and unusually warm, I drew the 
blanket from over my head, thereby letting the cold snow fall 
upon the necks of the colonel and major, both of whom being 
suddenly awakened by the shock, cried out, "Ugh! ugh!" 
Looking out upon the camp I could see no one stirring; every 
man was sleeping soundly and comfortably, their snow-covered 
forms having the appearance of so many inanimate logs. 
That experience convinced me that on a cold winter night 
one could have no warmer covering than a snow-blanket. 



Whenever there was a suitable snowfall a battle was almost 
invariably fought between nearly equal forces of volunteer 
troops. These sham battles were no child's play; the charges 
and counter-charges being made with grim determination 
were often of a desperate character. The balls being made 
hard as possible were capable of inflicting severe injuries. 
Many a poor fellow was carried from the field badly wounded, 
but even if so inclined he dared not exhibit anger nor com- 
plain. I well remember an occasion when a body of cavalry 
had to pass along a road lined on either side with infantry. 
The snow was melting and it was easy to make a ball with 
celerity and to make it almost as hard as a grapeshot. The 
infantry never missed an opportunity to guy the cavalry, and 
knowing we were coming they had large piles of snowballs 
already made. Conscious of the inevitable pelting we should 
receive every fellow ignominiously ducked his head and 
attempted to run the gauntlet at a gallop. The infantry fel- 
lows guyed us unmercifully, yelled like demons and kept the 
air literally full of hurtling balls. They having a cross-fire 
on us it was useless to dodge, and of course " we caught it" 
right and left. Some of our boys were knocked off their 
horses, but they were not permitted to surrender. Those 
infantry fellows for the time being had hoisted the black flag 
and gave no quarter. It was a terrible ordeal, many of the 
boys afterward saying they would rather go into any "sure 
enough " battle than to again run that gauntlet, 

Killing Rabbits. 

The greatest wholesale slaughter I ever witnessed was 
McL,aws' division of Longstreet's army corps killing rabbits. 
The soldiers, two or three thousand in number, surrounded a 
large field of sage grass, an area of probably one hundred 
acres, and armed with iron ramrods at the tap of the drum 
marched to a common center. Almost as soon as the march 
began the rabbits, scared by the terrific and constant yelling 
of the soldiers, could be seen jumping up all over the field, 
and as the four marching lines neared the center it was both 


a pitiful and a ludicrous sight to see the countless little ani- 
mals, timid and frightened, vainly trying to escape. At the 
general round-up the soldiers would knock them over with 
their ramrods, not a rabbit escaping. The field had been full 
of the little animals, and when killed they constituted a 
mound of considerable magnitude. One would suppose there 
would be an indescribable scramble and possibly a few fights 
among the men for the possession of the animals. Not so. 
They were veteran soldiers admirably disciplined, and they 
preserved the same order and discipline on an occasion of this 
kind as when performing the regular duties of a soldier. The 
proper officer took charge of the rabbits and issued to each 
company its pro rata just the same as if issuing ordinary 

The Grayback. 

The most infernally-tormenting thing a soldier had to con- 
tend against was the pestiferous, disgusting little graybacks 
which were always with him in countless myriads, roaming 
over his person, biting and tickling him, making him at 
times frantically desperate. The annoying insect was espe- 
cially active on a warm, sunshiny day. While a man was on 
the move the grayback would lie comparatively low, but the 
moment he became still the voracious blood-sucking little 
vermin would energetically begin business. Whenever the 
command would halt, if for only a short time, it was not 
unusual for many of the men to take off their shirts and 
occupy their time in " inspecting " for graybacks. Knowing 
he could not annihilate the whole army of investment the 
soldier expected to do nothing more than to crush the " pick- 
ets and skirmish lines." All conceivable expedients were 
resorted to for the extermination of the pests, or at least for 
an amelioration of the soldiers' tormented condition. Boiling 
his clothes, the using of mercurial ointment, red precipitate 
and other devices were of no avail. When Mr. and Mrs. 
Grayback were once introduced into a camp they were there 
to stay. They multiplied with phenomenal rapidity, burrow- 
ing in the seams and nap of clothing, in the hair, in the 


blankets, saddles — everywhere. The longer the war contin- 
ued the more decimated became the Confederate ranks, but 
the grayback army was constantly augmenting in numbers. 
A soldier receiving new clothing from the quartermaster 
would carry them to a certain spot in a field, walk away from 
them a distance of probably fifty yards, divest himself of his. 
old clothes, " graybacks and all," and then, being nude as 
nature made him, he would run to the pile of new clothing, 
put them on, and — by the next morning be as full of gray- 
backs as ever. The grayback was no respecter of persons, 
attacking alike the dainty, fastidious patrician and the tat- 
tered and torn plebeian, the general and the private soldier. 

A Dixie Girl's Song. 

My homespun dress is plain, I know, 

My hat's palmetto, too ; 
But then it shows what Southern girls 

For Southern rights can do. 
We send the bravest of our land 

To battle with the foe, 
And we will lend a helping hand — 

We love the South, you know. 


Hurrah ! hurrah f 

For the Sunny South, so dear ; 
Three cheers for the homespun dress 

The Southern ladies wear. 

Now Northern goods are out of date, 

And since Old Abe's blockade 
We Southern girls can be content 

With goods that's Southern made. 
We send our sweethearts to the war, 

But, girls, never mind — 
Your soldier-love will ne'er forget 

The girl he left behind. 

The Southern land's a glorious land 

And has a glorious cause ; 
Then cheer, three cheers for Southern rights 

And for the Southern boys ! 


We scorn to wear a bit of silk, 

A bit of Northern lace, 
But make our homespun dresses up, 

And wear them with a grace. 

And now, young man, a word to you, 

If you would win the fair, 
Go to the field where honor calls 

And win your lady there ; 
Remember that our brightest smiles 

Are for the true and brave. 
And that our tears are all for those 

Who fill the soldier's grave. 

Keeping a Diary. 

J. Harvey Dorman, of Captain Alexander's company, came 
upon the dead body of one of Averill's men at Wytheville, and 
upon examination of trie "effects" of the dead Federal he 
found a journal in which the soldier had kept a daily record, 
but he had been killed before he had an opportunity of mak- 
ing an entry for that day. Dorman wishing to keep the 
record unbroken made the entry: " May 10, 1864. I was 
killed to-day." 

Morning Ablutions at a Mountain Cabin. 

The wife of Colonel Giltner was a delicate young lady, 
vivacious, witty and of a sunny temperament. Mrs. Bart 
Jenkins was one of the gentlest, most amiable, refined and 
kindest-hearted ladies I ever knew. 

When the flag had been furled at Appomattox, and we 
were returning to Kentucky through the mountains, Mrs. 
Giltner and Mrs. Jenkins were in a carriage, escorted by 
Henry and Neville Bullit, of Louisville, and myself. One 
night we secured quarters for the ladies in a mountain cabin. 
The next morning the ladies asked the simple but hospitable 
hostess for a wash basin. The lady of the house opened 
her eyes in surprise, not understanding what they wanted. 
Finally, however, she was made to comprehend, and directed 
them to a wooden trough down by the spring, several rods 
from the house. 


A Man in a " Fit " and a Fight. 

Mrs. Stout, a Virginia lady, saw a great deal of the Fourth 
Kentucky, and tells the following on Henry Razor and Jerry 
Leggett: Razor had " drawn" a new suit of clothes, which, 
as usual, were a "misfit." The trousers especially were 
ridiculous — the waist being about four sizes too large, and 
the legs only reaching a short distance below his knees. 
While Mrs. Stout was busily baking biscuits for them, which 
they were rapidly and voraciously devouring, Leggett slipped 
one of the hot biscuits down the bulge in Razor's Falstaffian 
trousers, and she says that right then and there occurred the 
most vicious fight she ever saw. 

Texan Boys' Song. 

The race is not to them that's got 
The longest legs to run ; 

Nor the battle to that people 
That shoots the biggest gun. 



Horses, ordinary 

$700 to $3,000 

Boots, per pair 

100 to 200 


75 to 100 



300 to 400 

Calico, per yard 

8 to 10 

Coffee, per pound 


Sugar, per pound 



The Tennessee Bushwhacker. 
Bill Owens, a ferocious rebel bushwhacker, came to head- 
quarters and told how he had killed John Morrison, the 
noted Union bushwhacker, of Beech Creek, and how Mor- 
rison's little boy stepped out from the cabin and said : 
"Boys, old John's dead." Owens said he would call again 
after he had killed bushwhacker Sizemore and some other 


Who Will Care; for Mother Now? 

Of the many war songs the following was one of the most 
pathetic. I recall two stanzas : 

" Why am I so weak and weary, 

See how faint my heated breath ; 
All around to me seems darkness, 

Tell me, comrade, is this death? 
Oh, how well I know your answer ! 

To my fate I meekly bow ; 
If you'll only tell me truly, 

Who will care for mother now ? 

" Let this knapsack be my pillow, 

And my mantle be the sky ; 
Hasten, comrade, to the battle, 

I will like a soldier die ; 
Soon with angels I'll be marching, 

With bright laurels on my brow. 
I have for my country fallen. 

Who will care for mother now ? 

General Marshall's " Spirited " Address. 
In the autumn of 1864 the brigade was visited by General 
Humphrey Marshall, whom the boys had not seen since he 
had gone to Richmond to represent the Kentuckians in Con- 
gress. When he arrived in camp the boys gathered about 
him and demanded a speech. He said he was happy to greet 
them ; that he had kept himself informed as to their move- 
ments, achievements, conduct and welfare, and eloquently 
referred to the good record " his boys" had made, far from 
their Kentucky homes, battling for a just cause. He then 
relapsed into a strain of humor, saying that when absent he 
was with them in spirit ; that really he had been due in camp 
on the preceding day, but had met a few convivial spirits and 
got too much in the spirit, or too much of the spirit in him- 
self ; that he was so full that he would have been too full for 
utterance had he then put in an appearance and been called 
upon for an oration. It was nis duty to set a good example 
and not let " his boys " see him so full of " spirits." He had, 
however, often indulged them in the vice of getting "full," 


and he now asked their forgiveness for having ordered a num- 
ber of barrels of whisky to be emptied and the soil irrigated 
therewith at Ticktown, Ky. He thought " his boys " would 
agree with him that they had been getting a little too full on 
that occasion ; that he thought he was not so much to blame 
for having become intemperate on the preceding day, as every 
officer he met presented the flowing bowl, and custom 
and politeness demanded that he should not slight their hos- 
pitality. He forgot that there were six drinking against one, 
or one against six — somehow things were mixed, and he 
could scarcely yet straighten them out. His peroration was 
grandly eloquent. In his glowing apostrophe to liberty he 
said the war must be fought to a triumphant conclusion, even 
though it became necessary to wade waist- deep in blood. 
Barney Giltner, the witty aid-de-camp, here interrupted the 
orator and said: " General, that's too deep forme. I only 
contracted to go in knee-deep." 

A Mountain Wood Nymph. 

Major Henry T. Stanton, the laureate, inadvertently found 
a mountain maid sitting on a log in a sequestered woodland. 
Her chin rested upon her knees, held together by her clasped 
hands, and her feet were bare. 

" She had a rustic, woodland air, 
And she was wildly clad." 

The major halted at a respectful distance, intuitively feel- 
ing that the forlorn looking maid was in distress, and had 
purposely sought that secluded spot to be away from the 
haunts of man. Sympathetically he remained unseen and 
listened to the following lament, " chanted o'er and o'er," 
while the nymph's body swayed to and fro ; 

" Beauty is skin deep, 
Ugly is to the bone ; 
Beauty fades away, 

But ugly holds its own." 

Our poet silently sneaked away to the camp, wiped his 
weeping eyes, sat down at his desk and wrote an ode, dedi- 
cated to the army mule. 


The following was one of the mournful songs — sounds 
from the battlefield : 

The Officer's Funeral. 
Hark ! to the shrill trumpet calling, 

It pierceth the soft summer air, 
Tears from each comrade are falling, 

For the widow and orphan are there ! 
The bayonets earthward are turning, 

And the drum's muffled breath rolls around ; 
But he hears not the voice of their mourning, 

Nor awakes to the bugle's sound ; 
But he hears not the voice of their mourning, 
Nor awakes to the bugle's sound. 

Sleep, soldier, tho' many regret thee 

Who stand by thy cold bier to-day ; 
Soon, soon shall the kindest forget thee. 

And thy name from the earth pass away. 
The man thou didst love as a brother, 

A friend in thy place will have gained; 
Thy dog shall keep watch for another. 

And thy steed by a stranger be reined ; 
Thy dog shall keep watch for another, 

And thy steed by a stranger be reined. 

But tho' hearts that now mourn for thee sadly 

Soon joyous as ever shall be ; 
Tho' thy bright orphan boy may laugh gladly 

As he sits on some comrade's kind knee, 
There is one who shall still pay the duty 

Of tears for the true and the brave, 
As when first, in the bloom of her beauty, 

She wept o'er the soldier's grave ; 
As when first in the bloom of her beauty, 

She wept o'er the soldier's grave. 

A Bushwhacker Takes a Whack at the Poet Laureate. 
Jolly Major Henry T. Stanton came into camp, and in a 
poetical waj T told how, when upon the mountain side, he had 
been bushwhacked by a bloodthirsty mountaineer with an 
elongated squirrel rifle ; how he had withdrawn himself in 
quintuple time from the vicinity of the "whacker's" seques- 
tered eyre, and that he congratulated himself upon his 
masterly retreat — not losing a man. 



The Cold New Year. 

On the morn of that New Year, 
No bugle horn did we hear. 

Ever memorable day, January i, 1864! Memorable, not 
only on account of the excessive frigidity of the day, but by 
reason of the peculiar circumstances which indelibly stamped 
it upon the tablet of memory. No ; there was no sounding 
of Tom Hayden's bugle. The old horn had a bad cold, like- 
wise Tom. However, if there was no blow in the horn, old 
Boreas was giving us a blast, the very memory of which 
makes us shiver on a midsummer day. 

As I said, the circumstances were peculiar, even for 
soldiers inured to the hardest kind of hardships. We were 
in Tennessee, northeast of Knoxville, in a country which the 
armies of Iyongstreet and Burnside had left a barren waste, 
and now, on this terribly cold morning of a day that has 
passed into history as " the cold New Year," we are encamped 
on the outpost ; no fire and no prospect of a mouthful of 
food until we can reach our wagons, thirty miles away. On 
the previous day the weather was quite warm and rainy. 
The sudden change came in the night. We were lying on 
the bare ground with only the sky for canopy. Our mission 
at the post was ended, and at the break of day we began 
preparations for the long, cold, dreary march. With difficulty 
we untied our poor horses, which were shivering and whim- 
pering for food. The halters were covered with ice and 
snow, and frozen to the small " black jack " trees, which 
served as hitching posts. Without any formation we started 
on the long tramp of thirty miles. I say tramp because no 
man could ride his horse that day without freezing to death. 
We had seen no fire, had had no cup of coffee nor good 
warm breakfast to fortify ourselves against the cold. The men 
straggled at will, many of them leaving the column to wander 
through the country, hoping to find warmth — they could not 
hope for food — at the hearths of the simple but hospitable 

Few in that column were old enough to wear beards, but 
Major Parker had very black hair and beard. Toward the 
middle of the day, while staggering along, my horse follow- 


ing, I found myself beside the major, who spoke a cheerful 
word. I never would have recognized him but for his voice. 
The patriarch Abraham never wore whiter beard than the 
frosted hirsute appendage of the major. 

I shall not further attempt to describe our almost intoler- 
able sufferings. Suffice to say that when, after nightfall, we 
came in sight of the glowing camp fires, we felt just about as 
happy as if entering the New Jerusalem; 

Colonel Pryor and the; Home; Guards. 

One night Colonel Pryor, recruiting in Kentucky, thought 
he would venture into Carrollton to see his family. When 
within a few miles of the town he ran into a company of 
Home Guards, mustered at a crossroads. Appreciating the 
situation the colonel promptly ordered them to advance, one 
man at a time, which they abjectly and meekly did, the 
colonel sending them, one by one, to the rear. Having thus 
disposed of the valiant (?) Home Guardians, the solitary 
horseman resumed his triumphal march to Carrollton. 

A Sample. 

A dark, cold night at the foot of Clinch Mountain. The 
courier gang has applied to a man by the name of Sample for 
food and been refused. 

John Powell—" What's his name?" 
' Dick Alexander — "Sample." 

John Powell — "Well, I think he's a d — d poor sample." 

John Fore — " I think he's a very good sample of his class." 

All—" D— n Sample ! " 

An old gentleman wearing a high-crowned hat enters the 

Soldier — ' ' Say, mister, where did you get that hat ? Have 
you got a rammer for it?" 


John Skidmore and General Cosby. 

On the march down the Shenandoah Valley, General Cosby, 
riding an inferior horse, overtook John Skidmore, of Com- 
pany A, Fourth Kentucky, who was mounted upon a superb 
charger : 

General — " Soldier, that's a fine horse. How'll you 

Skidmore — " Couldn't trade 'hosses,' general, but I'll trade 
you my haversack for your ' hoss.' " 



The; Battle; of Saltville. 

THE loss of the Virginia Saltworks would have been a dire 
disaster to the Confederacy. The saline springs and 
wells were numerous, and large sums of money had been 
expended in their development and in the manufacture of 
the most indispensable condiment used by man or beast. 

A person who had never seen them could scarcely conceive 
of the huge piles, long ranges of salt hills. 

The Federals had long coveted these works, and our scouts 
reported that a force of six or eight thousand cavalry with 
from six to ten pieces of artillery was making a rapid march 
from Kentucky, with the avowed determination to capture 
and destroy them. They were commanded by Generals Bur- 
bridge and Hobson and Colonel Charles Hanson. It was also 
understood that there were two negro regiments in the Fed- 
eral column. 

The Saltworks were probably sixty miles from the Virginia 
and Kentucky line, and in order to delay the enemy and to 
keep informed of his movements, Colonel Giltner, whose 
brigade was between Saltville and the Federals, sent Colonel 
Trimble with one hundred and fifty men to Richlands, forty 
miles from Saltville. It not being known with certainty by 
which route the Federals would approach the Saltworks/ 
various detachments of observation were sent on several 
roads leading to the front and flanks. Learning that Bur- 
bridge had sent a battalion to Jeffersonville toward our right 
flank, Colonel Giltner ordered Captain Bart Jenkins to move 
in that direction to watch them. Trimble slowly fell back 
from Richlands, skirmishing the while with the enemy. 

Our main force, not more than three hundred effective 
men, took position on the slope of Clinch Mountain, while 
the enemy in plain view were encamped in the broad fields 
of the demesne of stanch old General Bowen, some two 
miles from our position. This was on Saturday, October 
i, 1864. 


We knew that there were no troops behind us at Saltville, 
excepting a small body of militia and a few pieces of artil- 
lery. Afterward, however, Major Henry T. Stanton wrote 
that General " Cerro Gordo" Williams, commanding a divis- 
ion of cavalry, had unexpectedly arrived at Castle Woods, 
not far away. This was cheering news, and we now only 
desired to hold the enemy in check until old Cerro Gordo 
could reach Saltville. 

About the middle of the forenoon the enemy moved out 
of their encampment and headed directly for our position on 
the mountain side. The long, blue columns as they 
debouched from their camps made a magnificent panoramic 
display. On they came in serpentine course, bugles sound- 
ing and panoplied in all the pomp and circumstance of war. 
A white horse battalion in front was especially noticeable. 
The mountain road ran in a zigzag course, and when the 
enemy had reached a turn in the road, about three hundred 
yards below one occupied by the Fourth Kentucky and 
Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles, our men fired down upon 
the Federals, emptying a number of saddles, killing some 
horses and causing the front regiments to dismount. 

The superior numbers of the enemy, six thousand against 
three hundred, enabled them easily to flank us out of our 
position, but not until after a hot fight of probably a half 
hour. While falling back to the crest of the mountain, we 
partially blockaded the road by felling a few trees. 

The Sixty-fourth Virginia and Tenth Kentucky Cavalry 
^were on the summit of Flat Top Mountain to protect our 
flank. The enemy did not come up to our new position 
until an hour or two past noon, and we again fought them 
until they adopted their previous tactics of dismounting and 
flanking us. We then descended the mountain, falling back 
to a veritable Gibraltar, Laurel Gap. This was a narrow 
passway through a smaller range of mountains than the one 
we had just abandoned. We could have made a Thermopylae 
of it but for the fact that it could be easily flanked. Here 
we were to make the last stand before retiring to Saltville. 
Iyieutenant-Colonel Smith, in command of probably two 
hundred and fifty reserves, old men and boys, was at the gap 


when we got there. They were then sent to guard two less 
important gaps, lower down toward the Saltworks. The 
cliffs on either side of Laurel Gap were almost inaccessible, 
they could not be scaled. The Fourth Kentucky and Tenth 
Kentucky Mounted Rifles were posted on the cliff to the left, 
and the Sixty-fourth Virginia on the right. Colonel Trimble 
was sent up the valley behind the mountain, to check any 
force that might cross above and attempt to come down upon 
our rear. 

It was late in the afternoon when the enemy appeared in 
heavy force, dismounted and attacked us. Scaling the 
mountain on the right, they charged upon the Sixty-fourth 
Virginia, easily driving it from its position. Our right being 
turned, there was nothing left but to retreat to Saltville. 
This we did slowly. In this fight Tom Roy, one of the best 
soldiers in the Fourth Kentucky, was severely wounded. 
There were, of course, others whose names I do not 

The enemy was arrogant and jubilant. The small force 
opposing him and the brief checks to his triumphant march 
emboldened him to think Saltville would fall an easy prey 
on the morrow. Burbridge, in his self-conceit and pomposity 
did not seem even to suspect that he was being toled on to 
an inferno of blazing muskets and roaring artillery which 
would sound the death knell of hundreds of his doomed 
command, and whose reverberations amid the hills and 
valleys of the Saltworks would mingle with groans of his 
wounded and dying and sing requiems for his dead. 

At Bradford the road forked, there being two roads to the 
Saltworks. Colonel Giltner took the Sixty-fourth Virginia 
and Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles across Holston River, 
and ordered Colonel Trimble with the Tenth Kentucky 
Cavalry and Fourth Kentucky Cavalry down the main river 
road. From scouts we learned that the entire Federal force 
had passed through Laurel Gap by midnight. 

Early the next morning, Sunday, October 2, 1864, the battle 
of Saltville opened by the enemy making a spirited and con- 
fident attack on our pickets and skirmish lines. Heavy 
columns soon pressed our small force on both roads, and the 


Fourth Kentucky and Tenth Kentucky Cavalry crossed over 
to the road occupied by Colonel Giltner, and in doing so they 
came immediately under the enemy's fire, Giltner having 
already fallen back. Colonel Trimble charged the enemy, 
making them recoil. He then continued to fall back slowly, 
until a large body of Federals charged the Fourth Kentucky. 
That regiment then and there fought a whole brigade for 
nearly a half hour. A part of the brigade occupied a high 
hill between two roads, just above Governor Saunders' house. 
General Robertson's small brigade, two hundred and fifty 
men, the advance of General Williams' division, arrived and 
took position on a high ridge to our right. 

I was charmed with the appearance of General Robertson. 
He was the youngest looking general I had seen in the army, 
apparently not more than twenty-four years of age, and 
wearing good clothes, en neglige, gallant and handsome. 

After much fierce fighting and shifting of positions, the 
enemy's frequent charges being repulsed with great loss to 
them, the line of battle was established substantially as fol- 
lows : General Williams' division was on the high ridge on 
the right ; Giltner's brigade was on the bluffs along the river; 
the Tenth Kentucky Cavalry on the bluff at the ford ; on its 
left was the Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles ; then the 
Sixty-fourth Virginia, and next the Fourth Kentucky, and 
Preston's reserves on the extreme left. Smith's and Prather's 
reserves were barricaded at Governor Saunders' house on a 
hill somewhat in advance — an exposed and dangerous posi- 
tion. They had been urged to abandon it but refused. 

I was standing in the main road at the base of the left end 
of Chestnut Ridge, when General Cerro Gordo Williams 
rode up at the head of his command, early in the morning. 
He looked much the same as when I had seen him last in 
Tennessee ; massive, tall and commanding, the picture of 
robust health. With the voice of a stentor he ordered his 
men up the ridge. Standing there in the middle of the road, 
he stormed and swore while hurrying the men, and continued 
to storm until the last man was in position. He was in 
prodigious haste to get into the battle, and after he got into 
it he stormed and " cussed " all day, and for aught I know 
he kept up the " storm " after the battle had ceased. 



The Battle op Sai/Tvii^e; (Continued) — Death of Colonel 
Trimble — Defeat of the Federals. 

SAL/TVILI/B was a natural fortress, a number of hills and 
ridges in concentric circles surrounding it. 

The enemy, apparently four thousand strong, mounted and 
dismounted, advanced upon our established lines and were 
received by a blazing line of fire from right to left. The 
roar and reverberations of our artillery among the gorges 
and fastnesses of the mountains were awe-inspiring and grand 
beyond description. The roar of one cannon sounded like 
a full battery of columbiads. The prolonged echoes were 
likely to inspire the delusion that a hundred hills were 
crowned with artillery of every caliber — howitzers, Napoleon 
twelve-pounders, parrotts, siege-guns, etc. 

Between the hours of n and 12 A. m. the enemy made a 
grand demonstration, displaying, more foolhardiness than 
generalship. Formed in three lines they charged the 
advanced reserves at Saunders', " old men and young boys," 
as Burbridge had contemptuously called them. Between 
those " old men and boys," not more than four hundred 
strong, and about two thousand Federals a surprisingly ter- 
rific conflict ensued. The " old men and little boys," in an 
exposed and unsupported position, stubbornly contested 
every inch of ground, much of the fighting being hand to 
hand. Their bravery surprised our veterans and the Fed- 
erals alike. Our soldiers, accustomed to guy them, had 
expected them to retire precipitately at the first fire. They 
held their position until the enemy in overwhelming force 
entered the yard and surrounded the house. Their loss was 
severe ; the more so as they had to fall back under a galling 
fire down a steep hill and up Chestnut Ridge. Thirty or 
more of them were killed, the usual proportion were wounded 
and as many more captured. Afterward, when passing over 
this part of the battlefield, my emotions were sad and sor- 


rowful when I beheld gray-haired men and fair-haired boys 
hying side by side pale in death, slain at the threshold of their 
homes, on their native Virginia soil ; gallant sons of the Old 
Dominion, the home of Washington and the mother of pres- 
idents. I take off my hat and bow in reverence to the memory 
of the " old men and little boys " of the Thirteenth Battalion 
Virginia reserves. 

The enemy scarcely halting at the Saunders house swept 
down the hill and up Chestnut Ridge, where they were 
warmly received by the small brigades of Robertson and 

It was here that the negro regiments, conspicuously 
exposed, fell in heaps before the rifles of the enraged Ten- 
nesseeans. Three columns charged the center held by Colonel 
Trimble at the ford. One column came down the big hill, 
one down the river and another across the wide bottom. The 
Federals when charging our lines, being in plain view, were 
fair targets for our unerring riflemen, and consequently 
whenever they made a charge their losses were frightfully 

Having crossed at the ford, the enemy scaled the cliff and 
attacked Trimble, who with his small battalion fought them 
in the open field at close range — not more than fifty yards. 
The Tenth Mounted Rifles and Sixty-fourth Virginia were 
sent to his support. Colonel Giltner galloped to the reserves 
who were then in the trenches at the church, and in obedience 
to his request they charged down the road and up by the 
graveyard, where Trimble was engaged, and delivered a with- 
ering fire, immediately, however, falling back. 

Co^oneI/ Trimble KraED. 

With his accustomed intrepidity the young colonel of the 
Tenth Kentucky Cavalry was desperately holding his posi- 
tion, when he was shot through the head, the ball striking 
just beneath the star he wore on his hat. Thus fell one of 
the bravest of the brave, noted for his quiet, modest manner 
and for coolness and intrepidity in battle, an accomplished 
scholar, a Kentuckian by birth and a Texan by adoption. 
He had been a soldier from the beginning of the war, enter- 


ing the army as a private and serving under General John 
B. Floyd, in his Northwest Virginia campaign, afterward a 
lieutenant in the Fifth Kentucky, thence rising to the 
colonelcy of the Tenth Kentucky Cavalry. 

" He died a gallant knight, 
With sword in hand, for Southern right." 

The enemy's advance was as signally repulsed in the center 
as it had been on the right. On the left they fared even 
worse. For more than an hour an interminable column of 
horsemen and footmen had been disappearing on the side of 
the mountain and eventually appearing in front of the Fourth 
Kentucky and Preston's reserves. This Federal column was 
commanded by Colonel Charles Hanson, a gallant officer. 
The Fourth Kentucky boj-s bore the brunt of the hot engage- 
ment that then ensued and drove the enemy back with heavy 
loss, there being only slight casualties in their own ranks. 
Captain Jim Wilfts was knocked down by a ball, but retained 
his place at the head of his company With their long-range 
Enfield rifles the Fourth Kentucky made many a Federal bite 
the dust, and they guyed and tantalized the wavering, dispir- 
ited boys in blue unmercifully They would fire a volley and 
then 3^ell, " Come right up and draw your salt ! " Silas Sims, 
a dead-shot, would draw a bead on a blue-coat, blaze away 
and then hail the '' Yank" with the interrogatory, "How's 
that; am I shooting too high or too low?" Afterward, while 
passing over the field, Sims came upon the bodj r of a dead 
officer whose head had been partially torn away by a cannon 
ball. The uns5 r mpathetic Confederate, with grim humor, 
took a handful of salt from his haversack and threw it into 
the cavity in the dead officer's head, saying, " There, you 
came for salt, now take some." 



Battle of Saltville — (Continued) — Captain Jenkins in The 
Federal Rear — Arrival of Generals Breckinridge and 
Echols — Duke's, Cosby's and Vaughn's Brigades— Killing 
the Negroes. 

ACTIVE firing ceased at 5 p. m. Really the enemy had 
been hopelessly defeated early in the afternoon, but 
dared not retreat, as we commanded the road through Hay- 
ters Gap, which was the hypothenuse of a right-angled 
triangle, the road from Saltville to Laurel Gap being the per- 
pendicular, and the road thence to Kentucky the base. Given 
an even start with the enemy we could easily cut them off by 
taking the Hayters Gap Road, as they would be compelled 
to retreat by way of the perpendicular and base of the right- 
angled triangle. They contented themselves as best they 
could by simply holding their position, a mile from the 
Saltworks, until night. 

Our artillery had been well served — solid shot and shriek- 
ing bombs doing horrible execution in the dense assaulting 
columns. One rifled cannon near the church was especially 
well trained, fired rapidly, and was very effective against the 
column that attacked Trimble at the ford. One shot killed a 
major and a captain. At another time a few well-directed 
shots stampeded a Federal line advancing around the end of 
Chestnut Ridge. 

It will be remembered that Captains Bart Jenkins and T 
M. Barrett had been sent to Jeffersonville to guard our flank 
before the enemy had reached the plantation of General 
Bowen. Captain Barrett succeeded in returning to the com- 
mand before the enemy passed the Jeffersonville Road, but 
Captain Jenkins was cut off. As the sequel proved it 
would have been to our advantage had Captain Barrett 
been forced to remain with Jenkins. There would then have 
been an annoying force in the enemy's rear. The genius, 
celerity and daring of Jenkins and the cool imperturbability 


and tenacity of Barrett would have made an admirable 

About the middle of the afternoon Jenkins attacked the 
Federal rear, surprising Confederates and Federals and creat- 
ing a diversion in our favor, Burbridge withdrawing four or 
five hundred men from our front to face the unknown force 
in his rear. 

Jenkins' bold attack and masterly evolutions greatly mysti- 
fied and demoralized Burbridge's already defeated and 
dispirited troops. 

A considerable part of our force was not engaged at all. 
General Williams' own brigade, commanded by Colonel 
Breckinridge, had only one battalion in the fight, and three 
or four hundred of the reserves were in action only a brief 
time. Giltner's brigade fired some seventy-five or one hun- 
dred rounds of ammunition to the man. 

Just after dark Captain Guerrant and mj^self were riding 
over the field when we met General Robertson, who said 
he thought his men had killed nearly all the negroes. 

Among the casualties that occurred in Giltner's brigade, 
I do not pretend to remember all, were the following: Major 
Cox, of Trimble's battalion, was shot from his horse, des- 
perately wounded; Captain John Honaker, of the same 
troop, was wounded; Lieutenant James Crutchfield, of the 
Tenth Kentucky Mounted Rifles', was killed. Lieutenant 
Crit Ireland, acting aid-de-camp on Giltner's staff, had his 
horse shot from under him. 

Generals Breckinridge and Echols arrived after nightfall ; 
also the small brigades of Generals Duke, Cosby and 

The Federals built numerous fires, which excited a sus- 
picion, afterward verified, that they would be gone before the 
dawn of Monday. 

The Fourth Kentucky relieved Trimble's battalion guard- 
ing the ford. With our front guarded by a strong skirmish 
line, the clear, blue Holston River running between us and 
the enemy, the " sentinel stars having set their watch in the 
sky," the Confederates slept peacefully and refreshingly until 
the earlv dawn of Monday 


Our command had always entertained a supreme contempt 
for Burbridge's generalship, but on this occasion he was 
entitled to credit for knowing when to retreat. Had the 
Federals remained in their position until the next morning 
they never would have gotten back to Kentucky except as 
exchanged prisoners of war. Reinforced in the night by 
Duke's, Cosby's and Vaughn's troops, we could easily have 
intercepted the retreating enemy on the narrow mountain 
roads and have hemmed them within the fastnesses of the 

I awoke at the first faint light of the dawn and saw that, as 
usual, a dense fog enveloped mountain and valley. All was 
quiet and impenetrably dark in front. Presently I heard a shot, 
then another and another until the firing swelled to the volume 
of that of a skirmish line. It seemed to indicate that the enemy 
were still in our front. Some adventurous scouts, however, 
soon came in and reported the enemy non est inventus. But 
what did that firing mean? I mounted my horse, and guided 
by an occasional pistol or rifle shot made my way through 
the fog until I had arrived at a point some distance to the 
front and right of the position from which I had started. I 
soon became aware of the fact that I was in the front of Rob- 
ertson's and Dibbrell's brigades, and the desultory firing was 
at once explained — the Tennesseeans were killing negroes. 
Dead Federals, whites and negroes, were lying all about me. 
Of course many of the negroes had been killed in battle, but 
many of them had been killed after the battle, that morning. 
Hearing more firing in front, I cautiously rode forward and 
came upon a squad of Tennesseeans, mad and excited to the 
highest degree. They were shooting every wounded negro 
they could find. Hearing firing on other parts of the field, 
I knew that the same awful work was going on all about me. 
It was horrible, most horrible. Robertson's and Dibbrell's 
brigades had lost many good men and officers, probably shot 
by these same negroes, and they were so exasperated that 
they could not be deterred from their murderous work. 
Very many of the negroes standing about in groups were 
only slightly wounded, but they soon went down before the 
unerring pistols and rifles of the enraged Tennesseeans. 


Had Burbridge done his duty he could have carried those 
wounded Africans off with his retreating column. Many of 
them were not disabled to the extent that they could not 
travel. They had not been awakened when the Federals 
"folded their tents and silently stole away." The poor, 
unfortunate negroes had overslept themselves and found that 
they had been deserted by their comrades and left to be mas- 
sacred — a fate that Burbridge must have known would befall 
them should they fall into Confederate hands. I pitied them 
from the bottom of my heart and would have interposed in 
their behalf had I not known that any effort to save them 
would be futile. Some of them were so slightly wounded 
that they could even run, but when they ran from the muzzle 
of one pistol it was only to be confronted by another. Enter- 
ing a little log cabin, I paused at the threshold when I saw 
seven or eight slightly wounded negroes standing with their 
backs against the walls. I had scarcely been there a minute 
when a pistol-shot from the door caused me to turn and 
observe a boy, not more than sixteen years old, with a pistol 
in each hand. I stepped back, telling him to hold On until I 
could get out of the way. In less time than I can write it, 
the boy had shot every negro in the room. Every time he 
pulled a trigger a negro fell dead. Generally the negroes 
met their fate sullenly. It was bang, bang, bang, all over 
the field — negroes dropping everywhere. About this time 
General Breckinridge, General Duke and other officers 
appeared on the scene. General Breckinridge, with blazing 
eyes and thunderous tones, ordered that the massacre should 
be stopped. He rode away and — the shooting went on. The 
men could not be restrained. I saw a youth approach a 
bright-looking mulatto boy standing quietly in front of a log 
cabin, who seemed to think he was in no danger. The young 
soldier leveled his pistol, and then the little mulatto jumped 
behind a sapling not larger than a man's arm, and cried out 
that General Duke had ordered him to remain there until he 
should return. It was of no use. In another moment the 
little mulatto was a corpse. It was said, I know not how 
truly, that General Duke had recognized the young negro as 
one who had belonged to the family of Morgan, or Duke, at 
Lexington, Ky. 



The Battle of SaltvillE (Continued) — The Retreat and Pur- 
suit — General Bash, W. Duke — Colonel Charles Hanson- 
Federal Depredations — Escape of the Federals. 

EVIDENTLY the enemy had retreated precipitately and 
much demoralized, as they had abandoned guns, 
ammunition, hats, coats, horses and other miscellaneous 
camp paraphernalia. The hills and fields were strewn with 
their dead and the houses were filled with their wounded. 
Their ostentatious cry, " Delenda est Carthago" had been 
changed to that of " Sauve qui peut" 

The ring of the rifle continued to sound the death-knell of 
the poor negroes. They were all killed — a multitude of them. 
The sable soldier was not accorded the privilege of surrender- 
ing himself a prisoner of war. I did not see any of the 
Kentuckians shoot a negro. A few of them, however, may 
have done so. Not having met the negroes in battle they 
had not the same provocation as the Tennesseeans. 

General Breckinridge having ordered a scout from Giltner's 
brigade to find the missing Federals the dashing Captain 
Dick Gathright was sent on their trail in hot pursuit. 

General Williams, with Duke's, Cosby's, Vaughn's, Robert- 
son's and Dibbrell's small brigades, was ordered to take the 
road through Hayters Gap, and, if possible, intercept the 
enemy in Richlands. There was an unaccountable delay. I 
observed that General Basil Duke, whose brigade formed the 
advance of Williams' division, was promptly in the saddle 
and at the head of his column, restlessly impatient, awaiting 
the pleasure of Breckinridge or of Williams for him to move 
forward. I have often thought of the brilliant young gen- 
eral's appearance on that morning. He was the impersonation 
of the ideal cavalier, a veritable Prince Rupert or Henry of 
Navarre. His agile, symmetrical form was in constant, 
nervous motion. Restlessly turning in his saddle, his dark 


eyes flashing, he impatiently awaited the order to advance. 
His was an attractive, martial figure. It must have been 
about 8 o'clock when the expected order came. I4ke a flash 
General Duke wheeled in his saddle, shouted " Forward! " 
and was off like a shot, the remainder of Williams' division 
trailing along behind him. 

Giltner's brigade was ordered to follow the enemy, but not 
to force them to accelerate their march, as it was desired to 
give Williams time to get ahead of them. The enem}- having 
many hours the start it was doubtful whether Old Cerro Gordo 
could intercept them. 

About a mile up the river we found Colonel Charles Han- 
son lying in a little log hut desperately wounded. In 
companj" with Colonel Giltner, Doctor Scott and Colonel Bob 
Stoner I went in to see him. He was lying on a rude bed 
and swearing horribly. Several canteens of brandy hung at 
the head of the bed, and it was evident he had been drinking 
copiously of their contents. His surgeon, Doctor Hunt, an 
old acquaintance, whom we had captured at Mt. Sterling, was 
attending him. The colonel was familiarly well acquainted 
with Colonel Bob Stoner, calling him " Bob," and to him he 
addressed most of his conversation. He expressed his opinion 
of Burbridge in language more forceful than polite, and said 
that Burbridge had kept well to the rear, ' ' too d — d cowardly 
to go where he had sent his men." A minie ball having 
passed through his body the surgeons declared the wound 
was mortal, but although he thought himself in the immedi- 
ate presence of death he made no effort to make his ' ' peace, 
calling and election sure," but continued to "cuss a blue 

Colonel Hanson was a tall, well proportioned, exceedingly 
handsome man, quite drunk and seemingly very wicked. We 
did not have time to remain with him long, and when we 
left him he was still " cussin' " and drinking brandy. Having 
no other thought than that he would surely die we were sur- 
prised to learn later that he had been removed to Emory and 
Henry Hospital, and that he would recover. The noted 
Champ Ferguson, who always carried a black flag, pushed 
his way to Hanson's ward in the hospital, and would have 



killed him but for the interposition of the Confederate 

Continuing the pursuit evidence of the demoralization of 
the Federals accumulated all along the route. Captain Gath- 
right had overtaken and stampeded what remained of the 
negro regiments at Laurel Gap, the Federal commander again 
seeming determined to sacrifice the negroes in order to protect 
his white soldiers. He gave the negroes the post of honor — 
the most dangerous positions. 

At L,aurel Gap we found an abandoned cannon, and further 
along another. The Federals pillaged every house on the 
route, the negroes especially making themselves very obnox- 
ious, insulting women, breaking into trunks, presses, 
bureaus, etc. 

About 4 p. m., when crossing Clinch Mountain, we saw the 
rear of the Federal column passing General Bowen's. They 
took all of the old general's negroes, horses, cattle, etc. 
Burbridge had also made a captive of Governor Saunders, 
gray-haired and decrepit, sixty years old, and exhibited his 
petty meanness and cruelty by making the old gentleman 
walk. The Federals were fine foragers. They killed sixty 
sheep for one man, and all the geese, turkeys, ducks, chick- 
ens and hogs they could find. They robbed the gardens and 
even levied on all the portable cooking utensils usually found 
in kitchens. They left many a poor, broken-down horse, and 
at one point the Sixty-fourth Virginia picked up eleven 
Federals, lost in the woods. We met a number of negroes, 
men, women and children, who had gone off with the enemy, 
coming back. At dusk Colonel Diamond, commanding the 
Tenth Kentucky Cavalry, attacked the enemy's rear while 
crossing Clinch River. Moving slowly, according to orders, 
we felt fairly confident of "bagging " the entire Federal force, 
but toward noon of the next day we found that the " best 
laid schemes of mice and men gang aft aglee " — General Will- 
iams had failed to "head off" the enemy. Our mortification 
and disappointment were great. It was useless to follow 



In the Shenandoah Valley— General Cosby — Natural Bridge 
— Lexington — Washington College — Virginia Military 
Institute — Stonewall Jackson's Grave — General Early — 
General Lomax— Captain McAfee— Rosser's Men. 

" Where Shenandoah brawls along — 
And burly Blue Ridge echoes strong 
To swell the soldiers' rousing song 
Of Stonewall Jackson's way. " 

ON or about the 20th of October, 1864, General John C. 
Breckinridge ordered General George B. Cosby, with 
detachments of Giltner's and Hodge's brigades, to proceed 
down the Shenandoah Valley and report to General Jubal A. 
Early. Cosby's command consisted of parts of the Fourth 
Kentucky Cavalry, Captain Bart Jenkins' company, Tenth 
Kentucky Cavalry, Sixty-fourth Virginia, Tenth Kentucky 
Mounted Rifles, First Kentucky Mounted Rifles, Second 
Kentucky Mounted Rifles and the Sixth Confederate Battal- 
ion — about five hundred men. Our disabled men and horses 
were left in camp near Wytheville, Va. 

General George B. Cosby was a native of Louisville, Ky., 
and had spent the greater part of his life at West Point and 
in the regular army. While in the United States army he 
was lieutenant in the Second Dragoons, commanded by 
Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston. He had served on the staff 
of Lieutenant-General S. B. Buckner. He was about thirty- 
five years old, five and a half feet in height, and weighed not 
more than one hundred and fifteen pounds. His hair and 
eyes were black, and his complexion dark. He was a 
polished man and somewhat of a martinet. He had some 
noticeable peculiarities, one of which was that he was invari- 
ably thrown into a rage when he saw an officer or soldier 
building a fire against a standing tree. Although the camp 
might be in the midst of a dense forest, he held that there 
was no excuse for wanton and unnecessary destruction of 


timber. He was interesting in conversation and genial in 

The general's staff was made up as follows : Major O. S. 
Tenny, Q. M. ; Major Clark, Q. M. ; Major Thompson, 
C. S. ; Major Shook, C. S. ; Captain Sam Shipp, A. I. G. ; 
Captain K. O. Guerrant, A. A. G. ; Captain J. J. McAfee, A. 
A. G. ; Captain Johnson, Ordinance Officer ; Lieutenant 
Carrington, Ordinance Officer ; Lieutenant Crit Ireland, A. I. 
G. ; Captain Barney Giltner and Charles D. Carter, Aids-de- 

I hailed with delight the prospect of a trip down the valley. 
I had been anxious to see the beautiful valley, celebrated in 
song and story, and which had recently been made famous 
by the brilliant exploits of Stonewall Jackson. The march 
was through a country of romantic appearance. The great 
turnpike road which runs through the entire length of the 
valley was the best I have ever seen. Much of the country 
is very beautiful, bearing a striking resemblance to the blue- 
grass region of Kentucky. When we were crossing the 
Alleghanies we were scarcely aware of the fact, the grade 
being so gradual. Of the objects of interest the one of 
greatest curiosity was the wonderful Natural Bridge. The 
main road runs right over it. General Cosby permitted the 
command to halt for an hour or two, that the boys might 
inspect the wonderful structure of nature. The bridge is an 
immense arch of limestone, two hundred and fifteen feet 
above Cedar Creek and averages eighty feet in width and 
fifty-five in thickness. The arch forms a perfect bridge, which, 
when viewed from the margin of the stream below, presents 
an imposing appearance. This great valley is fenced on one 
side by the Blue Ridge and on the other by the Alleghanies, 
the expansive country being alternately level and undulating, 
dotted with elegant mansions, reminding one of baronial 
halls. The broad, fertile fields and extensive bluegrass 
savannas make up a picture of beauty and grandeur which 
my inartisticpen is incapable of describing. Staunton, Salem, 
Harrisonburg, Lexington, Strasburg, Winchester and other 
towns, notwithstanding the desolation wrought by war, 
retained much of their pristine, substantial and aristocratic 


appearance. Lexington, situated on tableland, about equi- 
distant between the Alleghany Mountains and the Blue 
Ridge, was a town of probably one thousand inhabitants. 
The streets were crooked, but the houses were generally 
large and built somewhat after the style of those in cities, 
seemingly commencing at the second story — the kitchen, 
laundry, etc., being in the basement. Few men were at home 
— all gone into the war. The women were refined and cult- 
ured ; but we did not see many of them. They were either 
busily engaged with their domestic duties or weeping. 
Washington College, now known as Washington and L,ee 
University, consisted of several attractive and commodious 
brick buildings west or northwest of town. 

The Virginia Military Institute, then almost in ruins, stood 
near North River. Even in ruins the buildings were impos- 
ing, though the silent walls, vacant windows and open doors 
gave them a mournful appearance. Within those walls and 
on the surrounding campus the immortal military genius, 
Stonewall Jackson, had taught the cadets and trained them 
in artillery evolutions. The Federal general, Hunter, had 
attempted to destroy the buildings at about the time the right 
wing of his invading cavalry, under Averill, had been 
stampeded by General John H. Morgan, at Wytheville. 

In the center of the cemetery I sorrowfully and reveren- 
tially stood beside the grave of Jackson. There was then no 
stone, no monument — nothing but a small flagstaff and Con- 
federate flag to mark the sepulcher of the renowned Napo- 
leonic warrior who " had gone across the river to rest under 
the shade of the trees." It was a simple, sodded mound, 
with a bouquet of flowers, a daily offering laid upon it by 
loving hands. The boards at the head and foot of the grave 
had been mutilated by the Federals, who carried away chips 
and splinters as souvenirs. In no spirit of vandalism, how- 
ever, did they do this. The Union soldiers entertained the 
highest respect for the great Christian general, and they had 
no thought of desecrating his grave. 

Sheridan, the famous barn-burner, had left his signet almost 
everywhere in the valley. Somber ruins marked the places 
where the proud Virginia manor houses, granaries and mam- 


moth barns had stood. In many localities it was a desert 
land. The brave sons of refined and cultured old Virginia 
families were daily being shot down while defending their 
ancestral halls and their loved native land. Their weeping 
mothers, wives and sisters were driven from their homes by 
the flaming torch, an instrument of warfare disgraceful to 
even the untutored barbarian — the Goths and Vandals. The 
land of Washington, of Jefferson, of Madison, of Monroe, of 
Marshall, of Patrick Henry, of the Lees, the Jacksons, the 
Stuarts, the Ashbys and the Randolphs was made waste by 
fire and sword in the hands of men professing love for a 
country of which Washington, the Virginian, was the illus- 
trious father — the first in war, the first in peace and the first 
in the hearts of his countrymen. 

I turn from the somber, sickening picture, doffing my hat 
and reverentially bowing to the memory of the Virginians. 
L,et the curtain fall, while the orchestra renders music doloroso. 

At New Market General Cosby reported to General Early 
and was assigned to the cavalry division of Major-General 
Lomax, a young officer six feet two inches in height, with 
black eyes and hair, slow in speech, plain and unpretentious 
in manner. General Davidson, one of his brigade command- 
ers, was not tall, but he was very broad. Captain Guerrant 
said the appearance of the two generals suggested longitude 
and latitude. 

General Early, commanding Jackson's corps, was appar- 
ently about fifty years of age, probably six feet in height, 
well proportioned, but somewhat stoop-shouldered. He wore 
a great gray coat and an ancient-looking white slouch hat, 
decorated with a black plume. He "cussed and swore 
awfully," and drank liberally, as was the wont of the tradi- 
tional " fine old Virginia gentlemen." He always carried a 
canteen, which was generally supposed to contain brandy or 
whisky. However, " Old Jubal " was very popular, notwith- 
standing his wicked ways. 

When we arrived in the valley the battle of Cedar Creek 
had just been fought, and the first reading matter I saw was 
General Early's address to his troops, in which he recited 
their enviable record as soldiers and praised their valor which 


had won the battle and sent the Federal army flying down 
the valley, broken and demoralized. He then, in scathing 
language, denounced them for having lost the fruits of their 
great victory by breaking ranks and devoting themselves to 
plundering the enemy's camps. It was an able, lengthy, 
interesting paper, and in many respects a remarkable com- 
position, abounding in praise, pathos, pleading and denun- 
ciation. One who has seen General Early can well imagine 
his wrath, and how he " cussed and swore" on that fateful 
day, when he had seen his signal victory turned into defeat 
by his gallant soldiers, intoxicated with victory, indulging 
themselves in a wild revel in the enemy's camps. The gen- 
eral pointed out to them how easily they could have followed 
up their victory had they not stopped to plunder, convert- 
ing themselves into a demoralized mob, an easy prey to 
Sheridan when he turned and attacked them. 

Had Early's army retained its organization and continued 
its march against the fleeing Federals, "Sheridan's Ride," 
so-called, would never have been written. The excuse for 
Early's men is that they were ragged and hungry. The rich 
stores of food and clothing belonging to Sheridan's army 
were too tempting ; in fact were irresistibly attractive ; they 
halted in the midst of victory, and acting upon the principle 
that "to the victor belongs the spoils" they abandoned 
themselves to the pleasures of the hour. The soldiers felt 
their disgrace keenly, and did not resent the old general's 
terrible denunciations. They admitted that the general's 
scathing, condemnatory sentences were justly deserved. But 
among all his denunciations there was no charge of coward- 
ice. The veterans whom he commanded, among whom was 
the old " Stonewall brigade," could never be charged with 

New Market was a small, war-worn, battle-scarred town, 
having more the appearance of barracks for soldiers than a 
habitation for citizens. The town was full of soldiers, guns, 
wagons — everything that constituted the panoply of war. 
There I first saw General John B. Gordon, the fighting 
Georgian, and a number of other notables whose names I 
shall not stop to write. 


Lomax's division was composed of the brigades of David- 
son, W L. Jackson, Imboden, McCausland and Cosby. 
General Cosby issued the following address to his brigade : 

Headquarters Cavalry Command, 

Luray Valley, Va., October 31, 1864. 
The brigadier-general commanding takes pleasure in compliment- 
ing the command for good conduct on the march which has now 
terminated. But few disgraceful exceptions marred its discipline. 

Soldiers, you bring to the Valley of Virginia an untarnished repu- 
tation. Let your record here be worthy of the past and a source of 
pride in the future. 

Let no straggling, want of discipline or drunkenness disgrace your 
usefulness. Your path of duty is plain. Let no man depart from it. 

George.B. Cosby, Brigadier-General. 
Edward O. Guerrant, A. A. G. 

Captain McAfee soon became disgusted with the scant 
rations and tragically exclaimed : " My stomach feels heated 
and unsatisfied-like." When he got to Pennsylvania he 
intended to eat light bread, apple butter, cow butter and 
poultry ad infinitum, and burn mills, barns and granaries ad 
libitum, a la Sheridan. We trembled to think of the dire fate 
of the poor Pennsylvanians, when hungry " Ginger," with 
epicurean stomach, should swoop down upon them. But there 
continued to be a perennial vacuum in "Mack's" stomach. 
He never " got there." 

While on our way from New Market over into Luray Val- 
ley we met General Rosser's famous cavalry. They were 
well dressed, handsome, gallant-looking fellows and very 
merry, the result of a recent successful raid upon a ' ' still 
house," found in a sequestered spot in the Blue Ridge. Our 
boys saluted them and cried out, " Too gay, fellows, too gay ! " 

We also passed through Kershaw's division of infantry, 
McLaw's old division, whom we had seen before with Long- 
street in Tennessee. 



In the Shenandoah Valley (Continued) — Luray Valley — 
General Imboden — Lieutenant Crit Ireland — " Moonshine 
Stills " — Columbia Bridge — Front Royal — Desolation and 

WE learned that Sheridan was at Strasburg, " twenty 
miles away" We continued to meet occasionally 
a Rosser cavalryman who had tarried behind his comrades 
at the mountain "still house." The little distilleries seemed 
to be about the only inflammable objects that Sheridan had 
neglected to burn. Possibly he thought "fire water" was 
hot enough and quite as demoralizing and destructive as his 
own fire-brands. 

Our own boys were not long in finding out that they were 
in a land of apple-jack, nor was it long until many of our 
"sophisticated old timers" became as jolly as Rosser' s merry 

' ' We journeyed on 

With shout and song 
While Shenandoah 
Brawled along," 

And went into camp twelve or fifteen miles from New Mar- 
ket, near Columbia Bridge, which was burned by Stonewall 
Jackson just before his triple victory over Shields, Banks 
and Fremont at Cross Keys, Port Republic, etc. These 
valley soldiers and people almost deified Jackson, saying he 
seemed to be omnipresent and omniscient — an inspired and 
invincible Mars of war. 

Although the distillers made no application for them Gen- 
eral Cosby supplied the "moonshine resorts" with double 
guards — a matter of precaution and of courtesy. ( ? ) The 
general knew the "failing " of his Kentuckians and remem- 
bered Rosser's I^aurel brigade, composed of good-looking, 
gayly-dressed boys, on good horses, but carrying ' ' a little too 
much of the over-be-joyful." 


General Imboden visited our headquarters while we were at 
Columbia Bridge, and continued his visits on future occa- 
sions, being always a most welcome guest. Tall and stately, 
courteous in manner, elegant and scholarly in conversation, 
he was the ideal, fine old Virginia gentleman. When he 
visited Cosby's quarters we were usually treated to a medley 
of the sublime and ridiculous. While General Imboden 
would be charming us with discourses on art and poetry, the 
classics and science, he would be interrupted by gallant 
Lieutenant Crit Ireland, who wanted to tell some ridiculous 
anecdote or laughable, impossible story. Ireland was a con- 
noisseur in equine flesh, unexcelled in horsemanship, but 
literature was not his forte. His fortissimo laughter was in 
marked contrast to Imboden's dulcet tones. Again while the 
learned general's rythmic, enchanting language fascinated the 
audience around the bivouac fire Captain McAfee, with his 
hands upon his "unsatisfied-like stomach," would spoil the 
enchantment by bewailing the fact that there was not even 
one poor rooster left to welcome the rosy dawn along the 
banks of the classic Shenandoah. 

General Imboden had been intimately associated with 
Stonewall Jackson, whom he regarded as the greatest military 
genius of the war. He said that Jackson undoubtedly won 
the first battle at Manassas ; that he always favored aggress- 
ive tactics and planned to attack both front and rear. 

Tom Hayden's " shrill trumpet calling" summoned us to 
horse, as the morning lances routed the mists of the Shenan- 
doah, and when the sun peeped over the Blue Ridge we 
resumed our march down Luray Valley, our objective point 
being Front Royal, the site of another of the immortal Jack- 
son's triumphs over an often beaten foe. It was a small, 
city-like town, in a level bottom, probably a mile above the 
junction of the two branches of the Shenandoah River. The 
ladies of the place were noted for refinement and Southern 
patriotism. The surrounding country was desolation. We 
were in the region where Jackson had achieved undying 
fame. Here huge armies had been again and again hurled 
against each other, and the country was marked with ruins 


and graves. Graves everywhere; in the cemetery, in the 
woodland, by the roadside, in the fields, in the church-yard, 
in the garden. The very atmosphere seemed charged with 
the breath of the grim reaper ; the country was a Golgotha. 

" The dead men lie bathed in the weltering blood, 
And the living are blent in the slippery flood ; 
And the feet, as they reeling and sliding go, 
Stumble still on the corpse that sleeps below." 



In The Shenandoah Valley (Continued)— General Early Makes 
a Reconnoissance in Force — The Infantry Exchanges 
Pleasantries with the Cavalry — Lost on a Bleak Plateau 
— A Fragrant Breath and Two Canteens — A Weird Scene. 

" See you the foeman's banner waving?" 
" We see the foeman's banner waving." 
",Hark to the music — the trumpet and fife, 
How they ring through the ranks which they rouse to the strife ! " 

FROM Front Royal we moved on down the valley, looking 
for Sheridan, whom we found about five miles south of 
Winchester. On the night of November 1 1, 1864, our bivouac 
fires illumined a line of battle, and three miles distant was 
a long line of glowing fires, indicating that ' ' Cavalry Sher- 
idan ' ' was ready and willing to fight us on the morrow. 
Early's army had marched down the valley with "glad and 
gallant tread," seemingly eager to recover the laurels it had 
won and lost at Cedar Creek, October 19th. 

The bands played inspiring melodies, and the veterans of 
many battlefields sang, jested and laughed, apparently with- 
out a thought of the probable horrors of a great battle on 
the morrow. Their hearts were filled with " banquet song and 
dance and wine," oblivious of the morrow's tear, the groan, 
the knell, the pall, the bier. Here and there, however, was 
a group of Kentucky cavalrymen speculating upon ' ' coming 
events," and grimly discussing the probability of measuring 
lances with the " gallant yellow-haired Custer," who was 
known to be with the Federal cavalry in front. 

When Tom Hayden's bugle sounded the reveille on the 
morning of November 12th, our division (IyOmax's) was on 
the extreme right of the army. An occasional volley was 
heard toward the front, and as usual "camp rumors" were 
numerous. Some said that Sheridan had fallen back beyond 
Winchester, and that Early's infantry skirmishers were 
already advancing; others said that Sheridan was moving 


upon our lines, all of which proved to be correct. Both 
armies were advancing their skirmishers and maneuvering 
for position, preliminary to a general engagement. 

General L,omax soon received an order to double-quick to 
the left flank to assist Rosser, who was being pressed by a 
superior force of Merritt's admirable cavalry. Away we went 
across the entire front of the infantry, a line four miles long. 
The infantry, with burnished guns and bristling bayonets, 
were wheeling into position, and they made many a jest as 
we passed along their lines. They wanted to know what 
had become of "that mule of Morgan's," and implored us to 
"come down out of our hats." They knew we were "in 
there, because they could see our ears a-working." 

The bands were playing, the drums sounded the long-roll, 
the shrill fife pierced the November air, the bugles sounded 
various calls, artillery rolled to the front, the skirmish lines 
were hotly engaged, the roar of the battle had commenced ; 
but still blithe and gay the Stonewall Brigade and Gordon's 
veterans good-naturedly jested with the cavalry. Apparently 
"Sheridan's Ride," so-called, had not destroyed the morale 
of these stout-hearted veterans who were marching along 
with jest and song, ready, yea, eager, to again measure lances 
with the boastful Federals. 

Both armies were maneuvering in broad, apparently bound- 
less, meadows on both sides of the valley pike, the grand 
highway of armies. The fields very much resembled the 
bluegrass pastures of Kentucky. 

Having run the gauntlet of the infantry, we found that 
Rosser's gallant boys had been driven back from the left 
flank front to a line even with that of the infantry, but they 
had brought with them one hundred and four prisoners, and 
had killed and wounded many of the enemy. 

We formed in line of battle, facing Winchester ; then we 
faced toward the Alleghany Mountains, but were soon ordered 
across the fields to form another line facing in a different 
direction. The firing was heavy along the lines, but there 
was no general engagement of the infantry. After much 
changing of position our division faced Winchester again, and 
then dismounted. Again mounting our horses, we sat for 


half an hour in the piercing cold, when General Lomax rode 
up and ordered General Cosby to follow him. The division 
then again passed along the entire line of the infantry to the 
position it had occupied in the morning. We passed General 
Early in front of McL,aw's division. Although it was then 
night heavy firing rolled along the front, the blazing guns 
producing a fine display of fireworks. En route across the 
valley we struck General John B. Gordon's division of infantry 
at right angles ; they were in columns, marching to the rear, 
and we then realized that Early was falling back ; that under 
cover of a heavy battle line in front the army was slowly and 
sullenly retiring. While waiting for them to pass the long 
lines of infantry seemed interminable — an endless stream of 
human beings. Our cavalry boys became impatient, and 
occasionally seeing a gap in the marching columns they would 
attempt to ride through, but the infantry would double-quick 
to the point, with bayonets fixed, and give the cavalrymen to, 
understand that they could either stand where they were 
until they (the infantry) passed or fight — they did not care a 
d — n which. An infantryman, who probably had eaten 
nothing for two days, would propose to swap his gun for a 
horse and throw in his rations. They were very lively, full 
of fun, and would occasionally stop and cry out, " Rally, boys, 
rally ! " " Here's the place to make a stand ! " " We can 
whip them if a few men will only make a determined stand 
here " — referring to the cries of their officers who had endeav- 
ored to rally them at Cedar Creek. 

We finally got through the columns of infantry, and were 
then ordered by General Lomax to move across the country 
to Front Ro3^al via Cedarville ; thence back to our former 
position in Luray Valley. 

Why the army was falling back no one seemed to know. 
Some said General Early had intended to fight a general 
battle, but had found Sheridan too strong ; others, that he 
had made the " demonstration in force " to show Sheridan 
that he was neither dead nor sleeping, and that his army was 
not scattered and demoralized, as Sheridan had reported to 
his admirers in the North. But whatever the object of the 
movement many a poor fellow was left stark and cold upon 


the field. For an hour or more after dark the firing was 
heavy and incessant — raging fearfully in the cold, pitiless 
moonlight. Although not an engagement of the whole army 
it was a battle that would have been especially notable had it 
occurred in any previous war in this country A great many 
more graves were dug and additional numbers of our com- 
rades were left " sleeping in the valley." 

" Sink, O night, among thy mountains ! 
Let the cool, gray shadows fall ! 
Dying brothers, fighting demons — 
Drop thy curtain over all ! 

" Through the thickening winter twilight, 
Wide apart the battle rolled ; 
In its sheath the saber rested, 

And the cannon's lips grew cold." 

When Lomax's division left the battlefield Cosby's brigade 
marched in advance, and being unacquainted with the coun- 
try the general secured a guide to conduct him across the 
fields and through the woodlands to the Winchester and 
Front Royal Turnpike. When within probably two miles of 
the road the guide became confused and finally admitted 
that he was lost. We halted on a cold, bleak plateau, and 
scouts were sent forward to ascertain "where we were at." 

While waiting on that desolate promontory the troops 
experienced some of the horrible sensations of men freezing 
to death. Many of the rank and file had neither blankets 
nor overcoats, and, besides, they were ravenously hungry. 
We did not dare build fires, as we had heard that General 
McCausland had fought a cavalry fight with the enemy at 
Cedarville during the afternoon. Cedarville was between us 
and Front Royal, and we did not know but that the Federals 
were in our immediate front. I shiver now when I think of 
that terrible night — no fires, no blankets, no overcoats ; 
hungry, freezing and lost in close proximity to the enemy. 
Some poor fellows were almost wild with pain and fear — the 
fear of freezing to death. 

Who can question the patriotism of those heroic Confed- 
erate soldiers, to fame and to fortune unknown ? No pay, no 


bounty, scant clothing and little food. Exposed to the bit- 
ter cold and to every danger they unhesitatingly performed 
any required duty, marched almost continuously and fought 
desperately. The record of their marches was written in 
blood from their shoeless feet along the roads of the valley 
and other highways of the South. The milestones were 
battlefields and — graves. 

I never experienced a more welcome illustration of how 
the unexpected happens than on that night. While my 
teeth were chattering and my frail frame was shaking like an 
aspen leaf Tom Hayden, the bugler, cautiously approached 
me, placed his arms affectionately around my neck and — 
blew his breath in my face. 

Gentle reader, do you think I was insulted ? Not much. 
That breath was laden with the fragrant fumes of " moon- 
shine brandy," and wonderingly, but unquestioningly, I 
heeded his mute signal, " dropped to all fours," and following 
his lead crept through the grass to a pack-mule, which I 
recognized as one belonging to Doctor Scott, the surgeon 
and was supposed to be guarded by the doctor's factotum, 
Bob Hudson. Bob seemed to be off duty — probably drunk 
or undergoing the process of freezing to death. I knew, 
instinctively, that I was in the immediate presence of the 
" elixir of life," and did not stop to worry about poor Bob's 
condition or fate. I kept my eyes on Hayden, and saw him 
crawl to the gentle and generous mule. I did likewise. Two 
canteens, dangling from the pommel of the saddle, glistened 
in the pale moonlight. Hayden, in a half erect position, 
inverted one of the canteens and let the contents thereof 
flow in an uninterrupted stream down his throat. No words 
were spoken. None were necessary. All I had to do was 
to imitate my comrade, and I imitated hitn until those can- 
teens were sucked dry. Is there a Good Templar living who 
would have acted differently under similar circumstances ? I 
think not. The fire-water had a wonderfully exhilarating 
effect upon us. That was really a generous act in Hayden. 
He might have appropriated to himself the two canteens, 
but he preferred to divide " the find " with a comrade. Good 
old Tom ! I believe I should have frozen to death if his 


olfactories had not located that life-giving elixir. I shall not 
attempt to quote the awful language of Doctor Scott when 
he discovered the vacuum in those canteens. 

His terrific rage and the sulphurous condition of the cir- 
cumambient atmosphere can be better imagined than 
described. Poor Hudson bore the brunt of the tirade, while 
Hayden and I, like Csesar's wife, were above suspicion. 

Our ; scouts finally reported that the enemy had passed 
beyond the point where we would come into the road. 
Moving onto the pike we found ourselves within one mile of 
the Federal vedettes. We then marched toward Front Royal, 
passing over McCausland's battlefield. It was a dreary, dis- 
mal march. The houses were filled with wounded men. In 
one lay the inspector-general of McCausland's brigade mor- 
tally wounded. By the roadside and in the fields, stark and 
stiff, lay the frozen bodies of dead soldiers — rebel soldiers ! 
Their wan faces looked piteous and ghastly in the dim moon- 
light. Dead horses, saddles, bridles, wagons, sabers, broken 
guns, hats, coats and a burning caisson mutely told the story 
of the sanguinary combat between the fighting McCausland 
and his little brigade and a whole division of the enemy, 
commanded by General Powell, whom McCausland always 
called "That d — d one-eyed Powell." He was McCaus- 
land's old antagonist, and he hated him thoroughly. Powell 
was commanding Averill's division, the same that Morgan 
had defeated at Wytheville. 

" The pale moon rose up softly, 
And calmly she looked down 
On the red sands of the battlefield 
With bloody corpses strewn." 

The fight had taken place in open fields, where the enemy, 
by reason of their greatly superior numbers, had every 
advantage. McCausland's brigade had been literally run 
over. In fact it was rashness in McCausland to make a stand 
at all. He was driven back across the Shenandoah, losing 
two colonels and other officers, many of his men and two 
pieces of artillery. I drop the curtain on the dismal scene. 



We recrossed the Shenandoah, leaving McCausland's dead 
braves alone in their glory. 

" Farewell ! fallen brothers ; tho' this life is o'er 
There's another in which we shall meet you once more." 

We passed McCausland's lone vedette, standing specter- 
like on the overhanging bank, peering over " Guard Hill" 
for a blue-coat or the gleam of a deadly rifle. McCausland's 
scattered brigade at midnight was guarding the fords of the 
Shenandoah. The Fourth Kentucky and Captain Jenkins' 
company relieved McCausland and guarded the front until 
the next morning. 

For some days we marched and countermarched. The 
enemy made a number of demonstrations ; skirmishes were 
frequent, but " that d — d one-eyed Powell" made no serious 
effort to cross the river. 



Farewell to the Valley — General Early's Opinion of the 
Cavalry — Good News from Rosser — New Clothing — Famous 
Virginia Springs— The Return March— Grave of Captain 
Cleburne — Mrs. John B. Floyd. 

NOVEMBER 24, 1864, General Early ordered General 
Cosby to report to General Breckinridge, then in Ten- 
nessee. General Early himself selected our route, directing 
General Cosby to return by way of Warm Springs and L,ew- 
isburg. Grimly smiling, the old general remarked to Cosby 
that the people on that route had more horses to spare than 
those living along the valley pike. He had never been an 
admirer of the cavalry and was wont to say, ' ' They are only 
good to stampede and to steal horses," and that "Nobody 
ever saw a dead man wearing spurs." However, he had 
somewhat modified his opinion. His horsemen had done 
valuable service when his infantry was stampeded at Cedar 
Creek, and the accomplished General Rosser and his merry 
cavaliers had just covered themselves with glory by a dash 
into Piedmont, resulting in the capture of about one thousand 
Federals, fifteen hundred horses, two thousand cattle, eight 
cannon and innumerable small arms, all of which had been 
brought to New Market and presented to the cynical old 
general as trophies of the generalship and esprit de corps of 
the cavalry, especially of Rosser's Eaurel brigade. 

Just at this time also came the cheering news that General 
Breckinridge, who had been General Early's associate in the 
grand demonstration on Washington City, had signally 
defeated Gillem in Tennessee, capturing seven or eight hun- 
dred prisoners, six cannon, caissons, horses, fifty loaded 
wagons, ambulances, etc. Good for Breckinridge ! We all 
rejoiced at the humiliation of Gillem, our old antagonist, the 
slayer of General Morgan. 

When we started to rejoin Breckinridge our horses were 
nearly starved and the men were in a like condition. Euckily 


about this time the brigade drew probably four hundred suits 
of most excellent dark gray clothing, of English manufacture, 
which had recently run the blockade. The clothing came 
none too soon, as the troops were suffering greatly from the 
Spitzbergen weather which had prevailed nearly all the while 
we were in the valley. One night I shall never forget. The 
northwest wind was a howling blast. The force of the storm 
was similar to the euroclydon of the seas and the tornado of 
the woodlands. No sky, no stars were visible. The moon 
had the appearance of a white flower in a leaden vase. Cap- 
tain Guerrant and myself, more fortunate than many, secured 
a wisp of hay for a bed, and a buffalo robe served for a cov- 
erlet. But the wind whistled through the old tent, the trees 
moaned, the tent creaked and finally fell down, the horses 
neighed, and we shivered while we longed for morning. We 
thought of the comforts of home and the cost of liberty. 
The heavens, obscured by leaden snow-clouds, resembled a 
polar sky; the L,apland fields bounded by mountains deep in 
Alpine snow and swept by Siberian blasts afforded no asylum 
from the arctic cold. 

Our route led us by the way of the noted Hot Springs, 
Warm Springs, White Sulphur Springs, Red Sulphur, Red 
Sweet Sulphur and Gray Sulphur Springs. They are all in 
a narrow, romantic-looking valley, and at each of them was 
a large hotel and a number of other buildings, such as shoot- 
ing galleries, bowling alleys and cottages. The springs are 
strung along the valley not more than a mile or two apart. 
General Cosby made it convenient to go into camp one night 
at White Sulphur Springs, where the cavalrymen freely 
roamed over the grounds and through the hotels and other 
buildings, all of them being "banquet halls deserted." 

Our headquarters for one night were at an unpretentious 
mansion, where resided the widow of General John B. Floyd, 
formerly of President Buchanan's cabinet. Mrs. Floyd was 
a motherly, intelligent lady, who sat knitting beside the 
marble bust of her husband in the parlor. 

Near Dublin we passed over the battlefield where the 
Federal general, Crook, had killed General Jenkins on the 
9th of May, 1864, the day before Morgan defeated Averill 


at Wytheville. Jenkins had a small force which fought 
Crook's superior numbers most desperately Three hundred 
dismounted men from our camp near Saltville, under com- 
mand of Colonel D. Howard Smith and Major Diamond, had 
been sent by rail to Dublin to assist in repelling Crook's 
raiders. This little detachment met and fought Crook's vic- 
torious column most gallantly. Here I saw the grave of 
Captain Cleburne, of Morgan's second brigade, who had been 
buried where he fell. On a simple board at the head of his 
lonely grave a comrade had inscribed the following : " Dulce 
et decorum est pro patria mori.'''' Captain Cleburne was a 
brother of General Pat Cleburne, killed at Franklin, Tenn. 



The " Boys " Entertain their Comrades with Stories of Val- 
ley Experience — Stoneman on a Raid — Burbridge after 
more Salt — General Duke is Captured but Escapes — Gen- 
eral Duke Defeated at Kingsport and Colonel Dick Mor- 
gan Captured — Captain Bart Jenkins Captured at Abing- 
don but Kills two Soldiers and Escapes. 

HAVING returned to General Breckinridge, near Wythe- 
ville, we learned that General Stoneman commanding 
a division of cavalry composed of the brigades of Gillem and 
Burbridge was advancing from Tennessee, his objective point 
probably being Saltville. Burbridge coming for more salt ? 

We went into camp to obtain a short season of rest and to 
be reviewed and inspected by General Breckinridge. 

Colonel Giltner also was in the vicinity of Wytheville, with 
three hundred disabled and dismounted men who had not 
gone down the valley with Cosby. 

The weather being extremely cold, the soldiers, grouped 
around roaring fires, were entertained by the valley veterans 
who detailed their experience in the region of the Shenan- 
doah. Their stories of their association with the army in the 
valley were graphic, patriotic and amusing. 

The dismounted boys were especially interested in every- 
thing we could tell them concerning the Stonewall brigade, 
and in the many legends that had been told us respecting 
the personality, character and marvelous genius of Jackson. 
We had seen his grave at Lexington, and his battlefields at 
Harrisonburg, Port Republic, Cross Keys, Front Royal, 
Strasburg, Fishers Hill, New Market, etc. We told them of 
old Jubal Early and his great white overcoat, his slouch hat 
with the black plume, his short gray beard and light hair, 
his red face, the large field-glasses and the inevitable can- 
teen ; of his battlefield at Cedar Creek, and of the untruth- 
fulness of the poetry in "Sheridan's Ride;" of General 


Imboden, the polished scholar and polite gentleman ; of the 
dashing cavalry generals, Lomax, Rosser, Bradley T. John- 
son and McCausland, and of their gay and experienced caval- 
iers; of the Natural Bridge, Weir's Cave, Luray, the springs, 

While at Wytheville Captain Cantrill, of Duke's brigade, 
brought to Breckinridge's headquarters two black flags cap- 
tured from bushwhackers, eight of whom having been 
killed while fighting under them. The others had fled to 
the mountain fastnesses. 

Lieutenant-Governor Richard T. Jacob, of Kentucky, had 
been banished by the Federals and was temporarily living 
with Breckinridge's military family. 

About the middle of December General Breckinridge sent 
a dispatch to General Cosby, still in command of our brigade, 
stating that General Duke had been driven back from Kings- 
port and that Stoneman was evidently advancing on Abing- 
don and Saltville. He ordered Cosby to make a forced 
march to Saltville and head off Stoneman if possible. 

We started at daylight, in rain, mud and snow. A cold 
wind blew directly in our faces all day. It was one of those 
days that make soldiers forget their religion, and, when, 
instead of singing pastorales and breathing pater nosters, they 
indulged in maledictions and inelegant "cuss words." On 
we went, through Mt. Airy, Marion and Seven-mile Ford, 
reaching Saltville that night, having marched about forty 
miles without halting. We learned en route that Stoneman 
had captured two trains of cars near Bristol, and had defeated 
Duke at Kingsport, capturing Colonel Dick Morgan, a num- 
ber of men and wagons. 

We went into camp without anything for men or horses 
to eat. However, we were glad of an opportunity to sleep 
and rest, notwithstanding the horrid weather — the rain 
having turned to sleet. Before daylight, the bugles sounded 
their warning notes and we were placed in line of battle, 
expecting an attack from the enemy who we learned were 
approaching from Abingdon, they having captured that town 
early in the night. General Duke, who soon arrived with 
his little brigade, said Stoneman had between five and six 


thousand men, and was making a triumphal march, there 
being no troops of consequence to oppose him. This was 
depressing news, as we had only about one thousand cavalry 
and two or three hundred militia at the Saltworks. 

Colonel Giltner now took command of his brigade, reliev- 
ing General Cosby, who resumed the command of his own 
brigade, formerly that of General George B. Hodge. 

We remained in line of battle all day, but Stoneman did not 
come. He had gone in another direction. During the night 
a Federal surgeon, named Gardner, I think, was captured by 
Oscar Coleman, of the Fourth Kentucky, who had command 
of a picket post. This same surgeon had been captured in 
the former battle at Saltville. He was gruff, shrewd and 
disagreeable. He took pleasure in telling us that Stoneman 
had burned the court-house square, depot, jail and other of 
the best buildings in Abingdon and large commissary stores 
at Bristol ; that from Bristol the Federals had gone to Glade 
Spring Depot and captured a passenger train filled with 
negroes, running from Saltville. Two other trains, freight, 
escaped and returned to Saltville. 

Still another night we remained in battle array in the cold 
sleet, without shelter, awaiting an expected attack from the 
direction of Glade Spring. It seemed difficult for General 
Breckinridge to determine the enemy's intentions or to 
decide upon what movement to make himself. Many doubted 
that the enemy would attempt to take the Saltworks while 
we were in possession of them. The position was a strong 
one, and General Burbridge knew from experience what 
would probably happen to an assaulting column. General 
Duke while scouting in the night was captured, but adroitly 
managed to escape before the enemy discovered his identity. 

Captain Bart Jenkins and a number of other officers were 
asleep in Abingdon when the Federals entered the town. 
Captain Jenkins was captured successively by two soldiers. 
He killed both of them and escaped from the town. Captain 
J. J. McAfee and Barney Giltner were also surprised, but 
escaped, and walked to Glade Spring. Those two young 
gentlemen were ever seeking "square meals" and a bed of 
" goose hair." 


We finally learned that Stoneman was moving toward 
Wytheville, burning bridges and playing "high, jenks" 

About 3 o'clock in the morning our brigade was ordered 
to move, taking the advance, in the direction of Wytheville. 
Finding the muddy road almost impassable we turned into a 
field and waited until after daylight for General Breckinridge. 



The Battle of Marion — General John C. Breckinridge — 
Witcher and His Nighthawks— The Kentuckians Win 
Choice of Position — Incidents. 

" Beside him many a war-horse fumes, 
Around him waves a sea of plumes." 

THE battle of Marion was fought in the rain, mud and 
cold, on Saturday and Sunday, December 17 and 18, 
1864, between about one thousand Kentuckians, under Breck- 
inridge, and four thousand or more Federals, commanded by 
General Stoneman. Among the Federals was a regiment or 
two of "smoked Yankees" — as the Confederates facetiously 
called the negro troops. 

The morose and dejected Kentuckians, waiting in the mud 
and cold, recovered their nonchalant gayety when General 
Breckinridge appeared and rode to the front. 

What a handsome and imposing appearance he made ! Tall, 
straight, dignified, he was the ideal Kentuckian among Ken- 

" His stately mien as well implied 
A high born heart, a martial pride." 

Elegantly appareled, wearing the full dress uniform of a 
Confederate major-general, his bearing was indeed knightly. 
A brilliant staff of dashing officers followed in his train. 
Among them were Colonel J. Stoddard Johnston, adjutant- 
general, and Captain Blackburn, aid-de-camp. 

While this imposing, handsome general and glittering 
retinue slowly rode along the column, going to the front, 
it was interesting to note the many quaint remarks, some 
witty, some grave, some cynical and others prophetic, made 
by a thousand Kentucky cavalrymen. Such as the follow- 
ing : "Boys, he'll do." " W-h-e-w ! ain't he grand?" 
" Boys, that man has been Vice-President of the United 





'■ Ms 






The column stopped near Seven-mile Ford, in the rain and 
mud, to feed the horses. A courier from dauntless Colonel 
Witcher brought the intelligence that Stoneman was coming 
back and that he (Witcher) was fighting the Federals at Mt. 
Airy, beyond Marion. We moved brisk^- along, passing the 
burned depot at the ford and crossed Holston River, where 
stood the great mansion of Preston, and marched on to Marion, 
where we met another courier from "Witcher, saj-ing that he 
was being hard pressed, and that he was retreating somewhat 
hurriedly before overwhelming numbers. It being apparent 
that a collision would soon occur the Confederates tightened 
their belts, looked to their arms and grimly rode forward to 
battle. About two miles beyond Marion, near the covered 
bridge, over Holston River, we met Witcher' s little battalion 
retreating rapidly before two Federal regiments. The enemy, 
not being aware of our proximity, recklessly charged 
Witcher, resulting in a colliding of the opposing forces in the 
big road. 

Our advance battalion, the Tenth Kentuck}- Mounted 
Rifles, I think, quickly dismounted and poured a deadby vol- 
ley into the confused, recoiling Federal column, which 
retreated faster than it had advanced. Three Federal officers, 
loath to retreat, gallantly stood their ground, fighting with 
saber and pistol. One of them was killed, and the others, 
one a major, were captured. Giltner's brigade, being in 
advance, dismounted and double-quicked to take possession 
of a hill on the left, alreadj* occupied by a part of Stoneman's 
force and plainly the key to the position. The Tenth Ken- 
tucky Mounted Rifles, a squadron of the Fourth Kentucky, 
under Captain James T. Willis, the Tenth Kentucky Cavalry 
and Captain Bart Jenkins' troop, if I remember correctly, 
charged the hill and took possession of it. Captain Tom Bar- 
rett, commanding the remaining companies of the Fourth 
Kentucky, moved to a position behind the rail fence, on low, 
open ground, forming the center of our lines and command- 
ing the approaches to the bridge. Cosby's and Duke's 
brigades deplo5 r ed to the right of the railroad and turnpike 
and drove the enemy from a low range of hills, thus form- 
ing the left of the battle line. It was then late in the 


afternoon, but the enemy made several unsuccessful attempts 
to break through our lines. General firing ceased at night- 
fall, and our weary troops hoped to obtain some much-needed 
rest and sleep, but desultory firing continued nearly all night. 
At 8 or 9 o'clock General Breckinridge ordered the entire line 
to be advanced. It was very dark and the opposing lines were 
so close, probably not more than two hundred yards apart, 
that messengers bearing orders to the several battalions had 
to proceed slowly and cautiously, for fear of passing through 
gaps in the lines and falling into the hands of the enemy. 
While bearing an order to Captain Jenkins I became hope- 
lessly lost, and expected every moment to ride into the 
Federal lines. Neither side had dared to build fires, and 
there I was alone, very lonesome, and so completely " turned 
round " that I even had no idea of the direction back or for- 
ward to headquarters. I was afraid to go backward or 
forward, to the right or to the left. However, it would not 
do for me to remain motionless. I must move in some direc- 
tion and trust to luck. I rode along slowly, very slowly, 
until finally I saw a glimmer of light in the distance. I 
approached it stealthily, and to my great relief found a section 
of our artillery, and then I knew "where I was at.' To 
this day I do not know what part of the field I was on that 
night when lost. Other messengers had somewhat similar 
experience. Some time in the night the enemy made a 
furious assault on Captain Barrett's line at the bridge, but 
were promptly driven back. Lieutenant Tenny Bond and 
several men of the Fourth Kentucky were wounded, but the 
saddest of all was the killing of Johnny Vallandingham, a 
mere boy, who had only recently left his home in Owen 
County, Ky., to join the Confederacy. 

The line could not be advanced that night, and both sides 
contented themselves by keeping up a desultory fusillade 
until the dawn of Sunday morning. 



Battle op Marion (Continued) — No Sunday in the Army — A Des- 
perate Combat— Stoneman Repulsed — Duke and Witcher 
Demoralize the " Smoked Yankees." 

BY a singular fatality nearly all of our most desperately 
fought engagements occurred on Sundays. A soldier 
took little account of time and rarely knew the day of the 
week. There was no Sunday in the army. 

During the small hours of the night a number of the 
enemy, probably seventy-five or one hundred, effected a 
lodgment within the bridge — a fatal movement to them. At 
the dawn of day they were quickly made to realize that they 
were in the "wrong box." They could not get out, and to 
stay within the trap was uncomfortable and dangerous. The 
lynx-eyed sharpshooters of the Fourth Kentucky were exult- 
ant and watched the point of exit from the bridge as closely 
and eagerly as a cat watches a rat-hole. The first Federal 
who emerged from the bridge and made a dash for his base 
bit the dust, riddled by bullets. Another attempted a ' ' home 
run" and shared the same fate; then another and another. 
It was fun for the Kentuckians, but death to the gentlemen 
in blue. It was a case of " I'll be killed if I do, and I'll be 
killed if I don't." Again and again some bold soldier boy 
would undertake to make the dangerous run, only to be 
stopped by the unerring minie ball from a Kentuckian's 
Enfield rifle. In all, probably twenty attempted the hazard- 
ous flight, and all met a common fate. Warned by the fate 
of their comrades, the remaining Federals cowered in the 
bridge, and with fear and trembling awaited " coming events." 
When it became evident that there was not another bluecoat 
willing to become a target for the grim-humored Kentucky 
sharpshooters, a small piece of artillery was ordered to take 
position in the orchard within three hundred yards of the 
bridge, and shell the Federals out. But the shrieking, rico- 
chetting, bursting bombs, awfully terrifying, failed to dislodge 


them. They preferred to endure the terrors of artillery rather 
than hear the death-song of the Kentuckians' minie ball. A 
few were killed within the bridge, and the others remained 
there until night, when they sneaked out, the sharpshooters 
being no longer able to see the sights of their rifles. 

The main battle continued all day in nearly even scale, the 
fighting being obstinate, first one side and then the other 
gaining an advantage. The general battle did not begin very 
early in the morning, Stoneman hesitatingly and leisurely 
making disposition of his troops for the combat. Some two 
thousand horses could be seen on the hills in front of our 
center, but the riders were invisible. A deep ravine lay 
between the two forces. The first movement Stoneman made 
was an attempt to turn our left, held by Giltner's brigade. 
His assaulting columns met such a withering fire from Ken- 
tucky rifles that they were afraid to venture across the ravine, 
and they forthwith abandoned the "turning business" on 
that part of the field. Failing to make an impression on 
our left and center, Stoneman massed a heavy column and 
made a vicious attack on our right, held by the small brigades 
of Duke and Cosby. Here occurred probably the fiercest 
fight of the day. Burbridge's ' 'smoked Yankees " were in front 
of Cosby, and whenever they ventured from cover the Fourth 
Kentucky boys, who were on Cosby's left, poured a terrific 
cross-fire into them, and the colored troops, who did not 
always fight nobly, gave a howl of terror and quickly became 

A body of Federal cavalry attempted a charge and even 
approached the bridge, but "there stood that d — d Fourth 
Kentucky," cheering and yelling for them to " come on," but 
although it was a cold December day, it was too hot for the 
Northmen, who declined the warm invitation and hurriedly 
sought a place of refuge. 

In the afternoon General Duke and Colonel Witcher moved 
around and beyond the extreme left of the Federal line, and 
making a vigorous attack, scared Burbridge's "smoked 
Yankees " from the field. 

Although a hard rain was falling and the Kentuckians 
were knee-deep in mud, they cheered lustily, feeling confi- 


dent of their ability to defeat the enemy and to probably 
capture Stoneman's entire force. 

During the latter part of the day Stoneman was content 
to fight on the defensive. General Stoneman himself nar- 
rowly escaped capture when Duke and Witcher made the 
sortie on his left. 

Just before dark we saw a column of Federals followed by 
wagons coming from the direction of Wytheville. This -was 
a part of Gillem's brigade, which Stoneman had sent down 
Rich Valley to destroy the Saltworks, while he should enter- 
tain us at Marion. Finding himself hard pressed, however, 
Stoneman was forced to recall Gillem. 

At nightfall the fighting ceased, but the rain and cold 
increased. For two days we had been in the mud, cold and 
rain, fighting almost continuously, without anything to eat. 
On this Sunday night, however, after the battle, scant rations 
which had been cooked by the ladies of Marion were served. 

It was apparent to the humblest soldier that the enemy 
had been beaten. The Confederates had demonstrated their 
ability to hold their position and to repel every effort made 
by Stoneman to break through their lines. 



The Battle of Marion (Continued)— Enigmatical StraTEGETics 
— A Wide Open Door for General Stoneman to Enter 

AFTER nightfall General Breckinridge ordered the little 
army to withdraw from its position and move out on 
the road to Marion. On account of the rain, cold and dark- 
ness and the close proximity of the enemy it was a difficult 
and somewhat dangerous movement to make. Desultory 
firing continued all the while, and it was not until i o'clock 
Monday morning that the movement was successfully 
effected. But there was much surprise among the troops, 
and the query went round, " What does all this mean ? " Some 
thought we were going to Saltville ; others, that General 
Breckinridge was attempting to execute a strategical 
maneuver. However, the majority of officers and men 
thought we should have retained our position at the bridge. 
Stoneman had been forced to fight on the defensive. We 
were between him and Saltville, and he was a long way 
from his base, in an unfavorable position for retreat. We 
were aware that Colonel Buckley, returning from the lead 
mines, which he had failed to destroy, had passed along the 
Rye Valley Road, on our right. Buckley's force was of 
inconsequential strength and attracted but little attention. 
Notwithstanding the excellent morale of the troops, elated 
by their successes in the battles of Saturday and Sunday, we 
were now making the quid obscurum movement of this inex- 
plicable campaign. General Breckinridge had not been out- 
generaled nor had he been out-fought. He was greatly 
outnumbered, it is true, Stoneman having five men to his 
one, but his little army of Kentuckians had defeated every 
movement of the Federals and were by no means loath to 
confront them again on Monday morning. At sundown on 
Sunday the Confederates were conquerors, and they protested 
against playing the role of the vanquished. In the light of 


subsequent events it appeared that General Breckinridge had 
out-generaled himself. He threw wide open the door and 
permitted Stoneman to march unopposed to Saltville. The 
successful battles at Marion brought us none of the fruits of 

When we arrived in the town of Marion, after midnight, 
General Breckinridge, rather excitedly, ordered the column 
to take the road to the left, leading over into Rye Valley. 
Really it was no road — simply a mountain stream, swollen 
by the continuous rains, the water coming down much after 
the fashion of that at Lodore and making it almost impossi- 
ble for us to proceed. 

The head of the column became lost on the mountain, 
and when we reached the forks of the road General Breckin- 
ridge was again lost and unable to decide which road to take. 
Finally we started up a dark ravine and got lost again. Then 
we countermarched a mile and went up a mountain, where 
we halted on the summit, in the brush, and waited for day- 
light. The mountain was bleak and bare of comfort. The 
wood was too wet to burn, everybody was drowsy, but it was 
too cold to sleep. General Breckinridge sat on a stump, 
looking mad, dreary and forlorn. That seat on the stump 
was a striking contrast to that he had occupied when presid- 
ing over the United States Senate. The officers and men sat 
around on stumps, logs and stones, nodding and swearing. 

At day dawn we moved down the mountain to Rye Valley, 
turned up the valley, marched nearly all day, left the valley 
and went across to Mt. Airy, when we were once more on the 
Wytheville and Marion Road, having gone entirely around 
the enemy. Moving on to Marion we found no enemy — 
gone, of course. 

Citizens said the Federals had lost about two hundred 
killed and wounded, and that they threw some of their dead 
into the river. The dead "smoked Yankees" were left 
where they fell, unburied. 

General Duke, with a detachment of picked men, and Cap- 
tain T. M. Barrett, with a squadron of the best mounted men 
of the Fourth Kentucky, were hurried forward toward Salt- 


ville, the rest of the troops following, hungry, cold, sleepy ,, 
wet, muddy and — mad. 

When we reached Preston's great mansion we found the 
enemy had left nothing in it but cold, empty space. General 
Duke and Captain Cal Morgan were there waiting for the 
general. It was from this place on that dark, cheerless night, 
December 20th, that we saw the light of burning Saltville. 

The enemy did but little damage at Saltville. Of the three 
thousand kettles they broke about one-third and burned a 
number 'of the sheds. They were in a hurry and did not 
appear to understand the business of destroying saltworks. 
The wells were uninjured and there remained sufficient salt 
to supply every demand until the termination of the war. 
The lead mines, never of much importance, were not seriously 
damaged. The most serious damage done by the Federals 
was the destruction of Confederate commissary, quartermas- 
ter and ordnance stores at Bristol and Abingdon. In fact the 
loss of the ordnance stores doubtless had much to do in 
embarrassing General Breckinridge's movements. Our ammu- 
nition was running low at Marion, and it was impossible to 
obtain a supply so long as Stoneman remained between us 
and "Wytheville. 

Stoneman and Gillem fell back into Tennessee, while Bur- 
bridge retreated, closely pressed by our forces, by way of 
Pound Gap into Kentucky — a long, desolate march. Many 
of his men had frozen ears and noses when they reached the 
bluegrass region. 



The Captains op the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry. 

Captain W. D. Ray, 

AFTERWARD major of the regiment, commanded Com- 
pany A until the death of Major Parker. He was a 
middle-aged man, of medium height, stout, ruddy com- 
plexion, genial temperament and naturally a military- 
looking man. His face was smooth-shaven, excepting a 
notably heavy mustache, which gave him a somewhat fierce 
expression. He had been a member of the Buckner Guards 
and was a brave, reliable officer. 

Captain Ben Duncan, 

Who had been first lieutenant of Company A, succeeded to 
the captaincy when Captain Ray was made major. He was a 
rather small man with a compact, sturdy frame, of sandy 
complexion, quiet but alert, pleasing in manner, cool and 
intrepid, witty, intelligent and one of the very best " all- 
round" officers in the regiment. 

Captain John G. Scott. 
Slightly above medium height, slender, somewhat delicate 
in appearance, hair tinged with gray, voice rather strong, 
head carried high, graceful, dashing and one of the " bravest 
of the brave " — such was Captain Scott of Company B. He 
was affable in manner and one of the most popular officers in 
the command. He usually rode a gray horse, and when 
charging the enemy he had a habit of waving his hat above 
his head that had a most inspiring effect upon his own and 
other troopers. He was a model cavalry officer, his favorite 
tactics being to dash right at the enemy ; and when such 
opportunity presented itself he went at them like a veritable 
thunderbolt of war, being as irresistible as Napoleon's 


impetuous Murat. "When excited and impatient he would 
sometimes " cuss " a little, but instead of offending any one 
there was a certain charm about his profanity that had the 
effect of putting the men in good humor. 

Captain J. Tarrtn Alexander, 

Commander of Company C, a very large company, composed 
almost wholly of Owen County boys, was one of the most 
courageous and efficient officers in the regiment. He had 
dark complexion, black hair and eyes, and was slender and 
very tall. He was plain and unassuming, cool and indiffer- 
ent to danger — having many characteristics in common with 
Captain Barrett. No company in the regiment did more or 
better service than Captain Alexander's big Company C. 
They were especial favorites and were denominated " Old 

Captain Thomas E. Moore. 

Company D, made up of " boys " from Pendleton, Har- 
rison, Bourbon, Kenton and Campbell Counties, was 
commanded by Captain Thomas E. Moore, of Bourbon, an 
officer sans peur et sans reproche. Of medium size, delicate, 
neat in dress, prepossessing in appearance, quiet and court- 
eous, Captain Moore was one of the most gentlemanly officers 
in the brigade ; a man of whom no officer or soldier ever 
spoke a disrespectful word. His appearance suggested a 
dry goods merchant rather than a bluff captain of cavalry, 
but beneath that quiet exterior was the indomitable spirit of 
the bravest of cavaliers. He seemed alike impervious to fear 
or excitement, and in the din and roar of battle he was the 
same calm, unimpassioned man as when quietly conversing 
with comrades around the bivouac fire. In a desperate hand- 
to-hand saber fight with a Michigan regiment at Mossy 
Creek, Tenn., he was severely wounded in the arm, and 
although the wound was painful and slow to heal he placed 
the arm in a sling and continued to perform every duty as 
nonchalantly as if nothing had happened. 



Captain Sam Duncan, 

Of Company E, was a rather large, strong-looking man, 
rotund, slightly above medium height. He had dark hair, a 
pleasing face and wore a heavy mustache — a bluff, rollicking, 
fun-loving officer, brave as Julius Caesar; plain in manner 
and speech, he usually wore a short cavalry jacket. I never 
saw him in full dress uniform, and do not think he ever 
dressed in that sort of style. He was witty and immensely 
popular. He, too, had been a member of the Buckner 
Guards, and as a private soldier in that peerless company he 
won an enviable reputation for gallant daring among men 
who were all conspicuouslj- brave. 

It is, however, on the humorous side of the captain's char- 
acter that those who knew him best delight to dwell. He and 
Captain Shuck Whitaker were pre-eminently the two witty 
and " funny " officers of the regiment. There is no limit to 
the humorous stories told by them and of them. Their wit 
and humor ran in different channels, but it was all " funny " 
just the same. 

His comrades of the Buckner Guards tell of an incident 
that occurred at Shiloh. Just before the beginning of that 
great battle, when the opposing lines were so close that ordi- 
nary sounds were heard from one line to the other, Duncan 
was on the extreme outpost one night as a picket guard. 
Being weary and sleepy, too, he for once forgot military 
regulations and went off into the " Land of Nod." He had 
also been so careless as to dismount and hitch his horse, 
fastening the rein to a fence rail. In a short time he was 
awakened by a commotion in the camp of the enemy, and in 
his dazed condition, not being fully awake, thinking the 
enemy was advancing, he hurriedly sought to unhitch his 
horse, preparatory to mounting and riding away In his 
hurry he failed to unfasten the rein in as brief time as he 
thought necessary, and instead he shouldered the rail, 
mounted his horse, and thus rode triumphantly back to his 

The genial captain was the proud owner of a pretty little 
gray mare, and upon one occasion, being some miles from 
camp on a private scouting expedition, he found a small 


" moonshine distillery," and forthwith confiscated to his owr 
use and benefit a liberal quantity of the " mountain dew ' 
found therein. L,ike all "Confeds" the jovial captain was 
not troubled with any prohibition nonsense, and it was noi 
long until the "dew" "took hold," making him merrilj 
frolicsome and ready for any absurd adventure, dangerous 01 

Taking a bridle path through the woods, going to the 
encampment, the thought occurred to him that the little graj 
mare could be made to climb a tree. While endeavoring tc 
make the frisky little mare perform this unheard-of circus 
feat Colonel Giltner appeared upon the scene, and instantlj 
comprehending the status the following dialogue ensued, the 
colonel being inwardly convulsed with laughter but out 
wardly preserving his usual hauteur and speaking ir 
characteristic, measured, emphatic tones : 

' ' Well, — ■ Captain Duncan, — what — in — the — world — are 
— you — trying — to — do ? " 

" Hey ! Hello, colonel ! I'm trying to make this mare 

climb a tree." 

" Captain Duncan, — I — must — say — I'm — ashamed — of— 

" What's that, Colonel Giltner? You say you're ashamec 
of me?" 

" Yes, Captain Duncan, I — must — say — I — am." 

" Well, look here, Colonel Giltner, I'm ashamed of you 

too, and what's more, I've been ashamed of you a long 

time ! " 

The colonel rode away, leaving the doughty captain alone 
in his glory. Upon coming into camp the colonel related 
the circumstances in such an inimitably droll manner thai 
the narration was about as funny as Duncan's attempt tc 
make the mare climb a tree. 

Captain Duncan was captured in the horrible fight al 
Rheatown, Tenn., and remained a prisoner of war on John- 
sons Island until the close of the war. 

4 ^m m^ * 





Captain Thomas M. Barrett. 

First Lieutenant T. M. Barrett was promoted to the cap- 
taincy of Company F, Giltner's old company, when the latter 
was made colonel at the organization of the regiment at 

Captain Barrett was a young man with black hair and 
beard, quiet, staid and firm. Like Captain Alexander he 
was very tall and distinguished for good, hard, common 
sense and for cool, nonchalant bearing in battle. The com- 
manding general frequently called for a detachment from the 
Fourth Kentucky when he wished some especially hazardous 
duty performed, and upon such occasions Captain Barrett and 
his gallant company were often detailed to report to the 
general. At one time General Breckinridge sent them upon 
an expedition that a number of officers denominated as " hor- 
rible, most horrible." Captain Barrett fully realized the 
danger, but he and his men, apparently without a quiver of 
fear, unhesitatingly and successfully performed the service as 
commanded. Captain Barrett was a peculiarly conspicuous 
figure on a skirmish line, by reason of his tall form, which 
could be seen moving up and down his line unconcernedly, 
apparently unconscious that the air was full of whizzing bul- 
lets, hurtling grape and shrieking shells. I well remember 
one occasion when serving with Longstreet, in Tennessee. 
Captain Barrett was on the skirmish line in an extremely 
exposed position ; his men were lying down and under cover, 
but he himself was moving about, his form seemingly taller 
than ever, while the Federal sharpshooters were popping 
away at him — yet he was as undisturbed and void of nervousr 
ness as when at home in his elegant mansion on la belle 
riviere. Upon this occasion some one of the staff officers, 
pointing to the skirmish line, said : " Just look at Tom Bar- 
rett. The d — d fool is determined to get himself killed." 

Lieutenant Henry H. Adcock 

Was virtually captain of Company E, he having commanded 
that company from the time of Captain Duncan's capture, 
October, 1863, until the close of the war. Somewhat above 


medium height, rotund and sturdy in body, black hair, brown 
eyes, a pleasing face, suave, gentle, yet positive, courtly man- 
ners, Lieutenant Adcock was one of the most popular and 
reliable company officers in the Fourth Kentucky. Of 
equable temperament, fearless and intelligent, he commanded 
the respect of his superior officers and the unswerving fealty 
of his company. Notably conscientious in the performance 
of every duty, calm and collected in the hour of danger, the 
officers did him homage while the men gave him affection and 
admiration. His ability and natural military qualifications 
eminently fitted him for high rank. There was a peculiar, 
indescribable attractiveness about the man that commanded 
the friendship and confidence of all with whom he came in 

Once upon a time, as the novelist would say, when the 
Fourth Kentucky was quite young in the service Lieutenant 
Adcock, with a small detachment, unexpectedly ran into a 
force of Federals, commanded by the notorious Colonel Jim 
Lane, in ambush near one of the gaps in the Cumberland 
Mountains. The first intimation Lieutenant Adcock had of 
the presence of the enemy was the receiving of a volley, at 
close range, from the unseen foe in the bushes. It came so 
unexpectedly that the lieutenant, momentarily disconcerted, 
exclaimed, " By grab, boys ! what do you mean ? " A part of his 
hat brim had been shot away, but in the next breath he gave 
the command to fire, and then something very remarkable 
happened. When the " scrimmage " was over it was found 
that nine shots fired by Adcock's men had killed thirteen 
Federals, among them Colonel Lane. Will Glasscock, of 
Trimble County, Ky., now has Lane's pistol in his possession, 
and it is supposed he killed the Federal commander. 

Captain James T. Wixus, 

The dashing commander of Company G, was a young officer 
of "infinite jest and most excellent fancy." Nearly six feet 
in height, well proportioned, prompt and decisive, he was "a 
knight good and true." His personality was extremely 
attractive. The soul of honor, his escutcheon was as untar- 
nished and bright as his smiling face. Officers and men 



extolled the excellences of Captain Jim Willis. He was a 
brilliant cavalryman, whose sword flashed amid the smoke of 
the fiercest combat and whose cheering voice nerved and 
inspired his clansmen in the conflict. His gallant company 
was composed principally of young men from Grant and 
Owen Counties. 

Captain R. O. Gathright, 

Excepting Captain John Marshall, was the handsomest cap- 
tain in the regiment. He was a man of medium size, lithe, 
alert, impetuous, proud and daring. He had a notably fine 
suit of black curling hair, black flashing eyes, and in his face 
was an expression of blended gentleness and hauteur. Grace- 
ful in person, of patrician lineage, brilliant in conversation, 
possessing many and varied accomplishments, Captain Dick 
Gathright, of Company H, challenged admiration in the 
bivouac, on the march, on dress parade and on the field of 
battle. He was at his best when charging the enemy. He 
awaited the signal impatiently, and then with waving sword 
he was off like a shot. The word "dashing " is peculiarly 
applicable to Captain Dick Gathright. Courteous to his 
superiors, they honored him ; considerate and sociable with 
his subordinates, they believed in hini and unhesitatingly 
followed his lead when gallantfy charging the foe. Captain 
Gathright always dressed well, even elegantly — a most grace- 
ful and pleasing figure to look upon. 

" Not his the form nor his the eye, 
That youthful maidens wont to fly." 

Captain John J. Marshali,. 

Young, frank, gay and light-hearted, yet upon occasion 
properly dignified; courteous to his elders and superiors, 
considerate of his equals and kind to his inferiors; tall, 
straight, handsomefy dressed, of proud and lofty carriage, 
Captain John Marshall was the most knightly-looking officer 
in the brigade. 

He was a son of General Humphre}- Marshall and com- 
manded Company I, composed of men and boys from Henry 


and Carroll Counties. It is not possible to conceive of a 
more gallant, chivalrous officer than was this gifted, ill-fated 
young man. His bravery amounted to rashness, an illustra- 
tion of which came under my personal observation during 
Longstreet's Tennessee campaign. While skirmishing in 
front of our infantry, Captain Marshall, in an exposed posi- 
tion, was closely pressed by dense lines of Federal infantry', 
but instead of retiring he undaunted^ stood erect and waved 
his hat and sword in proud defiance right in the faces of the 
enemy, who themselves must have admired him. He finally 
brought his men off the field, in company form, slowlj' and 
defianth'. Retiring behind the infantry line Humphrey's 
Mississippians cheered him and declared they had never seen 
any such cavalry in the Army of Northern \ T irginia. The 
compliment was really bestowed upon the entire regiment, 
which was present, but Captain Marshall for a time was the 
most conspicuous figure between the lines of the opposing 
infantry, and he was the means of eliciting the applause the 
more emphaticalhy. Longstreet's veterans said they were 
accustomed to having the cavalry stir up a " racket " in front 
and then retire, leaving them to do the fighting, but that the 
Fourth Kentucky not only brought on the fight, they stayed 
and helped to fight it out. 

In Morgan's Kentucky campaign, during the fight on the 
second morning at Mt. Sterling, Captain Marshall killed a 
Federal with his saber. 

This peerless young officer met a sad and untimely death 
in a personal altercation with one who had been his friend, at 
Russell Courthouse, Ya. 

Captain H. Smith Chilton, 

Who had been first lieutenant of Company I, succeeded to 
the captaincy when Captain Marshall was killed. He was 
more advanced in years than many of his brother officers. 
He was somewhat above medium height and slightly inclined 
to corpulency. He was dignified in manner, had a kind, 
strong face and was a brave, trustworthy officer. There was 
a solidity about the man that inspired confidence, and his 


plain, unassuming manners made him very popular with his 
men. Of course what I have said as to the gallantry of Cap- 
tain Marshall and his company will apply to Captain Chilton, 
he being with the company second in command. Under his 
leadership the company lost none of its prestige for gallant 

Captain E. D. Whitaker, 

The gallant and redoubtable commander of Company K, was 
of medium size and dressed like a gentleman. He lived like 
one, too — whenever he struck a "square meal" or a "bed of 
goose hair." Witty and shrewd, Chesterfieldian in manner 
and sufficiently " cheeky," he usually had better luck than 
his comrades in securing substantials and luxuries, which 
were exceedingly scarce in the Confederacy. There are 
many humorous stories that could be told of Captain 
" Shuck " Whitaker, but one of the best is that related 
by Mrs. Emily Stout, of Worthville, Ky., but who 
during the war lived in Virginia. Captain " Shuck," accom- 
panied by four soldiers, called on her and wanted to buy 
some turkeys. She told him she had already given away a 
number of turkeys and that she had only five left, which she 
wished to keep. The captain then in his well-known elo- 
quent, persuasive tones made the following pathetic appeal : 
" My dear good woman, I know you have sons in the army, 
and I am sure they, too, are hungry. If you will let me have 
the turkeys it will be like bread cast upon the waters, and 
the good Lord will surely cause some one to feed your poor 
hungry boys. Now, my good woman, I am an honest Chris- 
tian man, and but for that fact might have stolen your 
turkeys. Madam, they are all now sitting on the fence 
behind the barn, and if you will spare me one you may be 
the instrument in the hands of God that will save one poor 
Christian soldier from starvation." The lady, unable to 
resist this pathetic plea, said, " Well, I will go with you 
and let you have one." But, sad to say, there were no 
turkeys sitting on the fence. While the Christian-like cap- 
tain monopolized the attention of " my good woman " his 
four soldiers had " skipped " with the five turkeys. 


Some of the "Boys." 

" Bold they could speak and fairly ride ; 
I warrant them, soldiers tried." 

Charles J. Bower 

WAS an educated, gentlemanly young soldier, belong- 
ing to Company F, Fourth Kentucky His record 
is exceptionally honorable. Always ready for duty he never 
missed a fight. At Mt. Sterling he took deliberate aim at a 
Federal, shooting him dead. Gallant Guy Flusser was killed 
by his side. 

While operating with Longstreet in the vicinity of Beans 
Station young Bower was with a detachment that captured a 
train of wagons at night north of Clinch Mountain, on the 
road from Cumberland Gap to Beans Station. The wagons 
were loaded with sugar, coffee and other commissary stores, 
en route to Burnside's army corps. Bower and James Spencer 
brought off one of the wagons and distributed the contents 
among their comrades instead of turning them into the com- 
missary department. Bower, being a lawyer and politician, 
claimed that he had first lien on the goods, and that to the 
victor belonged the spoils. 

Charley Bower and his faithful war equine, "Old Bess," 
were generally on hand when " tough " and dangerous 
service was to be performed. They were never with the 
"lame squad" but once — when Bower marched with the 
" foot cavalry " from Virginia to Mt. Sterling, during the first 
days of Morgan's last raid into Kentucky. Although he had 
been reared in affluence young Bower philosophically and 
stoically submitted to the hardships of a Confederate cavalry- 
man's life. His fine education, natural intelligence and 
varied accomplishments eminently fitted him for some staff 
duty of ease, rank and pleasure, but he sought no such position, 
being content to serve the Confederacy in the humble capac- 
ity of private soldier. He was fitted to adorn any station. 

" For of his clan, in hall and bower, 
Young Charley Bower was held the flower." 





H. HuivCEE, 

Sometimes called " H." and sometimes " Ham," was a Louis- 
ville youth, who joined Company E, Fourth Kentucky, in 
1863. Ham Hulcee was a rare boy, "smart," brave to rash- 
ness, cynical, indifferent to the luxuries of life, although he 
had been accustomed to them, careless in dress, and withal 
■one of the very best soldiers in the Confederacy. The whole 
Federal army could not have scared him. He was the son 
of Dr. H. Hulcee, a prominent physician of Louisville, and 
when Lee had furled the flag at Appomattox young Hulcee 
was averse to surrender and advocated a protraction of the 
struggle, even should it become necessary to adopt a guer- 
rilla mode of warfare. He was one of the " last-ditch" sort 
of fellows, and did not lay down his arms until he saw that if 
the war was to go on he would have to fight it alone. 

Thomas J. McElrath 

Was a college-bred youth, a Scotchman, the best classical 
scholar in the Fourth Kentucky. Impervious to fear he was 
ever ready for the fray and never shirked a soldier's duty. 
The boys delighted to gather around the bivouac fire to hear 
him read some " classic work of ancient story," or listen to 
his eloquent recital of legendary lore. He was captured at 
Mt. Sterling on Morgan's last raid, and in the loathsome 
prison at Rock Island he enlivened many a weary hour by 
reading aloud to his fellow-prisoners selections of modern and 
classic literature. 

Humphrey Marshall, Jr. 

In personal appearance young Humphrey Marshall was a 
" chip off the old block." Not more than seventeen years 
old, he was very large and fleshy, almost the picture of his 
father, the general. He seemed to be a free rover, going 
whither he pleased and coming when it suited his whim. He 
accompanied us on Morgan's last raid into Kentucky, and 
walked almost the entire "round trip." When asked why 
he did not get a horse he would nonchalantly reply, "Oh, 
plenty of time ; I'll get one after a while ; " but he seemed 


content to walk along the turnpikes rather than make an 
effort to obtain a horse, which could easily be secured by- 
leaving the highway a few minutes. However, while we 
were skirting the suburbs of Lexington he made a dash into 
the city and picked up a forlorn-looking Rosinante, but run- 
ing upon a squad of Dutch cavalry he was very nearly 
captured, as he would hold on to the worthless old " raw 
bones" while he fought off the Dutch single-handed. Riding 
bareback he rejoined the column. His experience must have 
been severe, as he wore scant clothing, his own back being 
nearly as bare as that of his razor-back war horse. He was 
devoid of fear and seemed to care neither for the comforts nor 
luxuries of life. At Mt. Sterling, under the hottest kind of 
fire, the enemy in the houses, he and a number of com- 
rades had a position behind a stone wall, where they 
were somewhat safe so long as they lay on the ground, but 
in danger of instant death the moment they showed any part 
of their bodies above the wall. Young Humphrey, however, 
persisted in standing up, coolly endeavoring to " draw a bead 
on a 'Yank.'" His comrades called to him, "Lie down, 
Humphrey ! You'll be killed if you stand there ! " His 
reply was, " By G — d, I can't see anything lying down 
there!" He escaped unscratched, although men fell all 
around him like grain before the sickle. He was a brainy 
youth and a most entertaining companion. I was with him 
a great deal on the Kentucky trip and at other times, and I 
often recall his wit, drolleries and enjoyable comradeship. 
Upon our arrival in Virginia, after the hegira from Cynthi- 
ana, I for a time had young Marshall and Tommy Bayless 
for messmates. Rations were scarce, and one morning hav- 
ing nothing but a chunk of blue beef, about enough for one 
soldier, and a small quantity of hard bread, we cooked the 
meat in an old pan, adding a little water, hoping to make an 
apology for gravy. Bayless was the first to dip a piece of 
the adamantine bread into the " sop," but he instantly threw 
it down and turned his head. Surprised, I asked him what 
was the matter. He said a big black spider had been cooked 
with the meat. Upon examination I discovered the dis- 
membered spider floating in the gravy. I also turned away. 

. 1. ■ 




Young Humphrey, noticing our movements, queried, 
"What's the matter with you fellows ? " We informed him 
about the spider. " Humph ! " exclaimed he, " what of 
that?" We said it turned our stomachs, whereupon he 
began to eat the disgusting compound, saying, " Boys, one 
side of my stomach is just as good as the other — let her 
turn." He soon left us, going to Richmond to read law in 
his father's office. He may have had further experience in 
the army, in his peculiar way, but I never saw him again. 

D. Brainard Bayless. 

This youth, handsome, dashing and brilliant, readily 
became one of the pets of the brigade. A native of Coving- 
ton, Ky., apparently not more than sixteen years of age, 
small, always neatly attired, a perfect little gentleman, he 
first came to the brigade as a member of " the little battery" 
The first time I ever saw the battery in action was at Tel- 
fords Station, where it came promptly upon the field when 
the engagement began, and at the first fire my attention was 
attracted to the little boy, Bayless, who was rapidly working 
one of the guns, and at each discharge of the diminutive can- 
non he would wave his hat, jump into the air and cheer. 
After leaving the battery he filled various ' ' preferred ' ' posi- 
tions, and being a prime favorite of Adjutant-General 
Guerrant he was installed into that officer's office as clerk 
and to perform general staff duty — the same position held by 
myself. L,ater, when General Breckinridge was in command, 
his younger brother, Tommy Bayless, joined us, and for a 
long time was my bedfellow and most intimate companion. 
Brainard Bayless was captured at Mt. Sterling, June, 1864, 
during Morgan's raid, but escaped from prison, and in the 
following September rejoined the command, remaining with it 
until the termination of the war. 

Wm. J. Bohon. 

One of the handsomest, most intelligent and popular youths 
of the Fourth Kentucky was Billy Bohon, a native of Har- 
rodsburg, where he had been well educated and a clerk in a 


dry goods store. A gallant soldier, fastidious in dress, alway 
managing to have good clothes and knowing how to wea 
them with the best effect, he was the best dressed boy in th 
regiment. He had been reared in refined society, had rea< 
extensively and could readily quote from standard poets- 
Pope being his favorite. Notwithstanding his fastidiousnes 
in language and dress the most uncouth and illiterate soldie 
was his firm friend. He was captured at Mt. Sterling, an 
remained a prisoner, I think, until the close of the war. H 
belonged to Barrett's company. 

Thomas P. Bashaw. 

Another elegant and accomplished youth, Tom Bashaw 
came to the Fourth Kentucky, Company F, in company wit' 
Bohon, and like him immediately became exceedingly pot. 
ular with officers and men. Bashaw was not only an affabl 
gentleman ; he was highly educated, a profound thinker, 
charming conversationalist and a fine singer. The boy 
delighted to gather about his camp-fire and listen to his elc 
quent discourses and hear him sing the numerous war songs 
such as "Maryland, My Maryland," "The Bonnie Blu 
Flag," etc. He was rather above medium height, well pre 
portioned and had black hair and eyes, a full, benignant face 
a tender, inviting expression about the mouth, a tendency t 
melancholy, and was rather easily discouraged, which w 
were inclined to attribute to delicate health. Tom Bastm 
was one of that rare type of men of whom no one ever had a: 
inclination to speak disrespectfully. Conscientious, he di< 
his full duty as a soldier. After the war he became a bril! 
iant lawyer, and going to Missouri he very nearly defeatei 
General Marmaduke in the State Democratic Convention fo 

Wm. H. Bradley 

Was probably the best drilled young soldier in the Fourth Ken 
tucky when it was first organized. For some years previou 
to the war he had been a member of a superb military compan 1 
in Louisville, and was therefore well up in tactics before h 
enlisted in the Confederate army. He had also been drill 





master of a company of the Kentucky State Guard. As a 
soldier he was one of the best. His modesty and unassuming 
manner kept him in the ranks, while others of less merit and 
ability became somewhat prominent officers. He was espe- 
cially efficient as a leader of scouts. His military acumen 
and general intelligence were recognized by his officers, who 
frequently sent him on special service. 

It was generally thought that Burbridge's (or Burnside's) 
cold-blooded general order No. 38 was only applicable to 
Confederates captured in Kentucky or within Federal lines. 
That supposition is disproved by the fact that Andy Garnett 
and Bill Tige, of Scott's company, were captured near Bean 
Station, Tenn., and condemned by Burbridge to be shot. 
Morgan's raid made it necessary to remove the prisoners from 
Lexington, and the sentence for some reason was commuted 
to imprisonment. Bradley, who was captured on Morgan's 
raid, was surprised to find Garnett and Tige in prison, and 
from them he learned of their narrow escape from being shot 
under order "38." 

Peter A. Mai^oy 

Was a notable young Irishman of Company E, Fourth Ken- 
tucky. Possessing great force of character he had almost 
unaided acquired a good common school education, which he 
supplemented by the judicious reading of history, biography, 
belles lettres, etc. His general information and ready Irish 
wit made him a most agreeable comrade. At Rheatown he 
was shot through both hips and left on the field, it being sup- 
posed that he was dead. About two months later a 
letter was received from him, announcing that he still lived 
and requesting that he be sent for and taken to the command. 
There was general rejoicing that the gallant young Irish 
soldier was not dead. However he was a cripple for the rest 
of his life. The Federals had treated him well, and when 
they left Rheatown they appointed a soldier to remain with 
him. Lieutenant Sennett Duncan went to him and conveyed 
him to Rogersville, where for a time he was left with friends. 
He was assigned to duty in the adjutant-general's office, where 
his good penmanship and intelligence made him a valued 



Heroism oe Henry Sanders. 

Three soldiers whose names should be written in gold 
were Lieutenant Robert Alexander, Henry Sanders and 
Thomas Osborne of the Fourth Kentucky . 

On the morning of the battle of Blue Springs Captain 
Tom Barrett was in command of the pickets — a squadron 
composed of his own and Scott's companies. Colonel Giltner 
ordered him to move with his pickets, or scouts, to Bulls 
Gap for the purpose of ascertaining whether the enemy was 
in possession of the gap. Barrett was cautioned, however, 
not to enter the pass under any consideration whatever. 

The captain proceeded without seeing or hearing of any 
enemy, and when within three hundred yards of the gap 
came to a halt. Not knowing positively from information 
he had obtained whether or not an enemy occupied the pass 
he directed Lieutenant Alexander, of Scott's company, to 
take two men and make a closer reconnoissance. Upon 
Alexander's call for volunteers Henry Sanders and Tom 
Osborne promptly signified their willingness to accompany 
him. The three daring soldiers going beyond their orders 
crept to a point whence they could look down into the gap. 
The enemy, in ambush, closed in on their rear, cutting off 
retreat. They dashed through the gap, running the gauntlet 
between two lines of an unseen foe. Alexander received a 
painful wound in the calf of his leg, his horse was seriously 
shot, and Osborne was wounded in the heel. Sanders and 
his horse remained uninjured. Having passed through the 
gap they found themselves confronted by a whole division of 
cavalry, drawn up in line of battle. Wheeling to the right 
they dashed along the side of the mountain, the long line of 
Federals firing upon them. Alexander's horse went down. 
It was then that gallant Henry Sanders, or "Black Hawk," 
as he was familiarly called, performed an act of heroism and 
self-sacrifice that entitles his name to be written in letters of 
living light on the scroll of fame. 

Dismounting under a galling fire he placed the disabled 
lieutenant upon his horse and took to the woods on foot. The 
brave trio managed to escape over the mountain, rejoining 
the command without further adventure. 

!• H. JJOK.MAX. 


"Digby" and "Major" Jenkins. 

These two youths were brothers, their proper names being 
Win. L,. and Frederick R. Jenkins. They had left a home of 
wealth and luxury to enter upon the hard and dangerous 
career of " soldiers in gray." I had never known them until 
we met as soldiers in the Fourth Kentucky, they belonging to 
Company E. From the first acquaintance I entertained a 
fraternal feeling for the two young brothers — brave, dashing 
and generous. Poor "Major" gave up his gallant young 
life — shot from his horse near Wytheville, Va., in the last 
engagement his regiment had in the closing days of the war, 
and he left no bolder heart behind. 

" We gave him, for a soldier meet, 
A soldier's cloak for winding sheet." 

Bob Warden. 

" Back from his beautiful blue-veined brow 
Brush all the wandering waves of gold ; 
Cross his hands on his bosom now ; 
Somebody's darling is still and cold." 

Bob Walden, the handsomest boy I ever saw, petted by a 
thousand cavaliers, left his home in Owen County, Ky., when 
probably not more than fourteen years old, to follow the 
plume of General John H. Morgan. When that chieftain 
made his famous raid through Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio 
" L,ittle Bob" daringly made his escape from imminent 
capture by swimming his horse across the Ohio River at 
Buffington Island. After many adventures he reached Gilt- 
ner's brigade in Tennessee, and was assigned to duty at 
headquarters as a " courier boy." Nearly always riding at 
the head of the column he was gay and happy, cheerily sing- 
ing some song like the following : 

" The boy stood on the burning deck 
Eating peanuts by the peck ; 
His father called, he would not go, 
Because he loved the peanuts so." 

He was rashly brave, seemingly never to realize the dan- 
gers to which he was constantly exposing himself. His 


gallant career was brief. Standing alone upon the breast- 
works at Bulls Gap, Tenn., waving bis hat and taunting the 
enemy — a conspicuous target for a thousand rifles — a ball 
struck him in the forehead, killing him instantly. Poor 
Bob ! So young, so bright. How we loved that precious 
boy — the youngest of our clan ! The bloom of summer was 
on his fair cheek ; there was gayety in his heart ; a cheery, 
perennial smile hovered about his boyish face, which was 
round and smooth, his complexion being the envy of the 
young girls. 

" Tenderly bury the fair young dead, 
Pausing to drop on his grave a tear ; 
Carve on the wooden slab at his head 
' Somebody's darling slumbers here.' " 


As the engraving indicates this young soldier was a frank,, 
generous boy, genial and handsome — as gallant a lad as ever 
faced a foe. Originally he belonged to Company F, Fourth 
Kentucky Cavalry, but when Captain Shuck Whitaker's 
company was organized he was transferred to Company K. 
Gentlemanly and intelligent he was an ideal soldier of the 

J. H. Dorman. 

This soldier was "a high private in front ranks" — edu- 
cated, intellectual and known as " Gentleman Dorman." He 
was a member of Alexander's company, always ready for 
duty — a veteran of forty-two engagements. 

Since the war Harvey Dorman has been a successful law- 
yer, four years county judge of Owen County and has 
served a term in the State Senate. While serving in the 
latter capacity his former comrade in the army and associate 
in the Senate, the Hon. Thomas J McElrath, paid him the 
following just tribute : 

" But I do know, and from an acquaintance of three years, 
extending over a period which called out every phase of a 
man's character, I am warranted in saying that Harvey Dor- 
man is a gentleman like the gallant Bayard, ' without fear 


1 r ,* 



and without reproach ; ' that in the old Fourth Kentucky- 
there was no more gallant soldier, no man of stricter integ- 
rity and purer morals than he." 

Thomas Roy, 

Wounded at Laurel Gap, Va., was one of the coolest soldiers 
under fire in the Fourth Kentucky. Notably quiet and of 
amiable temperament he calmly did a soldier's duty. 

I am admonished that if I continue to introduce cavaliers 
worthy of laudation this book will grow beyond all reasonable 
size, and I must therefore content myself by assuring the 
reader that the gallant " boys " whom I have sketched are 
merely " ensamples " of those whose names are found on 
muster rolls, recorded on preceding pages. 

I close this chapter by quoting from General Bragg's 
exquisite tribute to the private soldier of the Confederacy : 

" Without the incentive or the motive which controls the 
officer who hopes to live in history, without the hope of 
reward, actuated only by a sense of duty and patriotism, he 
has in this great contest justly judged that the cause was his 
own, and gone into it with a determination to conquer or 
die, to be free or not to be at all. No encomium is too 
high, no honor too great for such a soldier. However much 
of credit and glory may be given, and probably justly given, 
to the leaders in the struggle, history will yet award the main 
honor where it is due — to the private soldier, who without 
hope of reward and with no other incentive than a con- 
scientiousness of rectitude has encountered all the hardships 
and has suffered all the privations. Well has it been said, 
' The first monument our Confederacy raises should be a 
lofty shaft, pure and spotless, bearing this inscription : ' To 
the unknown and unrecorded dead. ' " 



The Last Days — The Homeward March — The Surrender to 
General Hobson at Mt. Sterling. 

" Furl that banner ; true, 'tis gory, 
Yet 'tis wreathed around with glory, 
And 'twill live in song and story 

Though its folds are in the dust ; 
For its fame on brightest pages, 
Penned by poets and by sages, 
Shall go sounding down the ages. 
Furl its folds though now we must." 

AFTER the battle of Marion the brigade remained com- 
paratively inactive until early in the spring of 1865? 
when it defeated and stampeded a raiding cavalry force near 
Wytheville. In this engagement, our last, " Major " Jenkins 
was killed. 

From Wytheville the command marched toward Lynch- 
burg and Appomattox, but when we had arrived at 
Christiansburg we received the intelligence that the Army of 
Northern Virginia had succumbed to the inevitable and laid 
down its arms — that General Lee had surrendered his little 
army, starved and exhausted, to General Grant. With the 
surrender of Lee's veterans the majority of our soldiers real- 
ized that the end had come ; that 

" The neighboring troops, the flashing blade, 
The trumpet's stirring blast, 
The charge, the dreadful cannonade, 
The din and shout were past." 

All was gloom. I shall not attempt to describe the 
pathetic scenes. The men could scarcely decide as to the 
best course to pursue. General Basil Duke and others were 
loath to surrender. Many suggested an attempt to join 
General Joseph E. Johnston's army. Others determined to 
make their way to the Trans-Mississippi department, and 
thence to Mexico or South America. Many declared that 
they would never again live under the United States govern- 



merit ; nearly all expected bad treatment and persecution by 
the dominant party controlling the Federal government. 

Colonel Giltner, with tears in his eyes, addressed the 
assemblage of troopers, sitting upon their horses. He 
recapitulated their daring and faithfulness as soldiers and the 
many sacrifices they had made in the long, hard struggle 
against a power that commanded overwhelming numbers and 
unlimited resources. He said that the future appeared 
cheerless and forbidding, and that the thought of surrender 
was most harrowing to his soul, and yet he thought the very 
best thing that could be done would be for the command to 
retain its organization, march to Kentucky and there surren- 
der. Emphasizing the fact that without L,ee and the Army 
of Northern Virginia further conflict would be hopeless, he 
said that any prolongation of the struggle would result in 
useless suffering and effusion of blood. The colonel's voice 
faltered when he spoke of the sundering of the ties that for 
nearly three years had bound officers and men together in 
close comradeship. All eyes were dim; all voices were 
hushed. Men could not trust themselves to speak. No 
funeral scene was ever more solemn. 

The colonel merely sought to advise the men ; he made no 
attempt to dictate to them nor to control them. As for him- 
self he intended to march to Kentucky ; all who chose to do 
so could follow him ; the others were at liberty to go whither 
they pleased. A number of the men, I do not know how many, 
arrayed themselves under the unfurled red battle flag of 
General Duke and followed that gallant chieftain southward. 
The majority of the command took Colonel Giltner's advice 
and turned their faces toward Kentucky. Having bidden the 
followers of General Duke a sad farewell we started upon the 
long and dreary homeward march. 

'' No cymbal clashed, no clarion rang, 
Still were the pipe and drum ; 
Save heavy tread and armor's clang, 
The sullen march was dumb." 

My chums on this march were Neville Bullitt and his 
cousin, Henry Bullitt, of Louisville. 


They were members of Company C, Second Kentucky 
Cavalry, General Duke's old regiment, and had been captured 
when on Morgan's raid north of the Ohio River. They had 
recently been exchanged, and when they joined the command 
in Virginia the three of us became messmates and close 
friends. They were exceptionally well educated, gentle- 
manly youths, with whom it was an honor to associate. 
Henry Bullitt was a brother of the Hon. Joshua F. Bullitt, 
formerly one of the judges of the Kentucky Court of 

At Hazel Green, Ky., probably forty miles from Mt. Ster- 
ling, we halted and sent forward a flag of truce to ascertain 
from General Hobson, in command at Mt. Sterling, the terms 
upon which we would be permitted to surrender. "When our 
flag returned it was accompanied by a gentlemanly young 
artillery officer and a small escort, who bore a courteous 
communication from General Hobson, in which he sug- 
gested that we should march to Mt. Sterling, where we 
should be permitted to surrender upon the same terms, sub- 
stantially, as had been granted to General Lee at Appomattox. 

Immediately acting upon General Hobson's generous sug- 
gestion we marched to Mt. Sterling, where we surrendered 
and were paroled — May 10, 1865. 

Our surrender to General Hobson was another illustration 
of the vicissitudes of war. Only one year before the general 
had surrendered his brigade to General Morgan at Cynthiana. 

General Hobson treated us with delicate consideration, 
and did all that was in his power, under the circumstances, 
for our comfort and pleasure. 

Personally I was extremely fortunate. Judge Belvard J. 
Peters, who lived in the suburbs of Mt. Sterling, had been 
an associate with Judge Bullitt on the bench of the Court 
of Appeals. He came into the encampment and invited 
the Bullitt boys and myself to make his house our home 
during our stay in that vicinity — an invitation which we 
thankfully accepted. The judge and his good wife gave us 
royal entertainment at their elegant home, and upon our 
departure, knowing that we had no money except worthless 
Confederate scrip, the generous judge made us accept of a 




gift of nearly one hundred dollars, current coin of the realm, 
that we might not be pecuniarily embarrassed while on the 
way to our homes. 

From Mt. Sterling we went to Paris, where Henry Bullitt 
had a sweetheart, and remained a week ; thence we went to 
L,ouisville, and then — our soldier days had ended. 

" Furl that banner, softly, slowly. 
Treat it gently — it is holy — 
For it droops above the dead ; 
Touch it not; unfold it never ; 
Let it droop there — furled forever." 

A — The Stars and Bars. 

B— The Battle Flag. 

C— The Camp Flag-. 

D — Last Flag of the Confederacy. 

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